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Emergency help phones treatment poisons & venomous poison bites, stings, sources for antivenom
Updated: 26 October 2006 Links:15 August 2007

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Snake Bites Other Venomous Bites/Stings Emergency Help Phones & Sources For Antivenom

If poisoning and not venomous bites or stings,
go to poison emergency page
. Otherwise, stay here.

Related Pages: All Emergencies Page     Antivenom Sources Worldwide     Poisoning Centers Worldwide (also for animals)     CPR     Animal CPR     Heimlich Maneuver

This page index snake bite or other venomous bites/stings
  • Emergency Bite/Sting Phones Worldwide
  • Emergency First Aid
  • Antivenom Sources Worldwide
  • Societies
  • Journals
  • Caring for Animals In Captivity

  • Phones Worldwide for Venomous Bites and Stings
    (phones not physically verified) to top

  • Before you call, go here excellent online advice for first aid, what to do, how and when for all venomous bites or stings

  • Locate the posion control center in your country World directory of poisons centres which are generally prepared to give advice on all types of poisoning including bites and stings. by World Health Organization

  • For general local emergency numbers (all countries) includes: AMBULANCE, POLICE, FIRE, RESCUE, and OTHERS (note: Numbers for all emergencies not just bites and stings) provided by Fiesta, Philippines

    For professionals and paramedical staff. Over and above the regional and country poison centers, there are two major centers for advice on snake and other venomous creature bites/stings. But, local or country services should always be contacted first, except in the case of Australian or Arizona-USA residents (see below).

  • International
    DOCTORS AND PARAMEDICAL STAFF ONLY - Australian Venom Research Unit - A 24 hour consultancy service is available. Phone: +61 3 8344 7753 Fax: +61 3 9348 2048
  • Australia only numbers
    Emergency Numbers for Advice on Bites and Stings 131126 (Australia-wide)
    (08) 8222 5116 Marine Stinger Advice Phone - Urgent medical advice for any serious marine envenoming
    (03) 9389 1911 CSL Ltd Australia All hours number for referral to a CSL consultant. - Use of antivenom and the management of envenoming.

    United States
    Arizona Poison & Drug Information Center For U.S. and in some cases, venonous creatures other parts of world. Toll-free number: 1-800-222-1222 First Aid and Recommendations for Bees, Spiders & Other Bugs, Scorpions, Gila Monsters, Arizona Coral Snake, Rattlesnakes. Current Tucson-area number: (520) 626-6016

    FIRST AID links Venomous Bites and Stings   to top

  • Very Important - READ THIS TEXT BELOW FIRST, then see index to right --->

    The Pressure Immobilization Method
    Used to slow down absorption of venom.
    Should be used on some bites and stings and not on others

    Pressure Immobilization Method for following (from AVRU):
    bites by redback spider, other spiders including mouse spiders and white tailed spiders, scorpions, centipedes, stonefish and other fish stings, Bluebottle jellyfish, other jellyfish, Hymenopterans (bees, wasps and ants) in non-allergic individuals, Australian beetles.

    Pressure Immobilization Method on the following from eMedicine and AVRU: suspected funnel web spiders (Australia), blue ringed octopus (Requires free registration. You will be directed), cone shells, sea snake, severe stings box jellyfish Requires free registration. You will be directed. (on box jellyfish, do vinegar treatment first), snake bites (all Australian species), coral snake, cobra (use controversial), most venomous U.S. snakes (use controversial), Check it out for rattlesnakes, copperheads and cottonmouths/water moccasins Australian Paralysis Tick Bees, wasps and stinging ants to allergic individuals

    Three major things to remember in use of pressure immobilization:

  • Wrap bandages snugly not tightly over as much of the affected limb as possible to slow down movement of venom in lymphatic system not in the blood stream. Blood flow in the wrapped finger, arm or leg must be allowed to move freely or serious damage could result.
  • Do not remove the wrapping until examination and proper precautions by medical authority. Removal suddenly increases flow of venom into the system.
  • Put splint over the bandage to reduce "pumping effect" of muscle movement. DO NOT attempt to remove clothes from around bite since this will increase spread of venom.

    Rules to Follow From Informtion provided by Dr. Struan K. Sutherland

  • "Research stresses the importance of keeping the patient still. This includes all the limbs.
  • DO NOT wash the bitten area. The type of snake involved may be identified by the detection of venom on the skin. If the snake can be safely killed, bring it to the hospital with the victim.
  • Bring transport to the patient if possible.
  • DO NOT cut or excise the bitten area.
  • DO NOT apply an arterial tourniquet. (Arterial tourniquets, which cut off the circulation to the limb, are potentially dangerous, and are no longer recommended for any type of bite or sting in Australia.)
  • [Even during transport] Note: - Note: Even if the bitten or stung person is ill when first seen, the application of pressure-immobilisation first aid may prevent further absorption of venom from the bite or sting site during transport to hospital.
  • [Do not remove] If the bandages and splint have been applied correctly, they will be comfortable and may be left on for several hours. They should not be taken off until the patient has reached medical care..."

    Additional Background and technique on Pressure Immobilization Method
    ARVU page on Pressure Immobilization Method

  • Index
    First Aid Bites/Stings

    Links To General First Aid

    Scorpions & Insects

    Venomous Animals in General    return index

  • Excellent first aid all stings and bites world wide Search directory. As an example, for the the word 'snake' gives first aid treatment for the world's snakes by continent. Very complete.
  • eMedicine.home
    FREE registration
    Search for the keywords sting or bite or wilderness
    For General Wilderness Emergencies FREE registration eMedicine environmental emergency
    Emergency Medicine eMedicine directory and search
    Complete treatment of most conditions encountered
    "...largest and most current clinical knowledge base available to physicians and health professionals. Nearly 10,000 physician authors contribute to the eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base with coverage of 7,000 diseases and disorders. The evidence-based content provides current practice guidelines in 62 medical specialties, and is kept current 24/7. All of eMedicine's original content undergoes four levels of physician peer review plus an additional review by a PharmD."
  • CSL Antivenom Handbook made available by CSL Limited Australia for Doctors and Professionals through Women's and Children's Hospital Adelaide Australia First Aid / Emergency Phone Numbers / Medical Treatment / Antivenoms Also see: Treatment and Identification. Parasol EMT Slow entry for non-fast internet access.
  • Clinical Toxinology Resources Women's & Children's Hospital Adelaide and The University of Adelade "The Clinical Toxinology Resources Website is a premier site for information on venomous animals and poisonous animals, plants and mushrooms. It covers the whole World, with both general information and information about particular organisms, located through a searchable database, that allows users to look for an animal, plant or mushroom, based on a common name, a scientific name or family, a country or region." Each records contains: General Details, Taxonomy and Biology, Venom, Clinical Effects, Treatment, First Aid , Antivenoms Complete First Aid for most venomous species worldwide, and indepth information for many progressively updated and expanded. Supports search for all users and subscribers with access to full information system.
  • Australian Venomous Creatures AVRU University of Melbourne Australian Venom Research Unit Compact first aid and treatment for snakes, spiders, arthropods and marine creatures found in Australia
    Full List: Snakes, Spiders, Funnelwebs, Mouse Spiders, Redbacks & Other Spiders, Jellyfish, Box Jellyfish, Irukandji, Bluebottle, Other Jellyfish, Ants, Bees & Wasps, Stonefish, Blue-Ringed Octopus, Scorpions, Stingrays, Cone Snails, Paralysis Tick, Centipedes, Sponges, Moths & Caterpillars
    Clinical Information and references for above
  • - the information portal for keepers of venomous species
  • Virtual Center on Toxinology English and Portuguese The Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP) was founded by a group of researchers from Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Brazil.
    Information on Medical Emergency for snakes - clinical picture, Reactions to serotherapy, retanus prophylaxis; Spiders; scorpions; bees and wasps; centipedes; venomous caterpillars. Plus online Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins and links to other sites in Brazil and other countries Also VETERINARY Snake and Toad envenoming
  • International Venom and Toxin Database Bryan Grieg Fry, Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne
    Worldwide arranged by continent/nation with direct links to most toxic snakes (world-wide) list - LD50s (updated) Extensively cross-linked with Australian Venom Research Unit database for the medical and first aid information concerning Australian animals.
    Venom types (all animals) snakes scorpions spiders frogs toads gila monsters insects blue ringed octopus cone snails stingrays stonefish jellyfish platypus sea snakes
    Venom Detection Kits

  • Arizona Poison & Drug Information CenterCovers venomous bites and stings, and other poisonings.

    Snakes - First Aid, Medical Treatment      
    return to index

    If do not see what need, go to Venomous Animals in General

  • eMedicine environmental emergency index and search
  • USDA - Treating and Preventing Venomous Bites
  • Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center
  • Florida’s venomous snakes contains valuable information about Florida’s venomous snakes. Includes links to fact sheets. Free CD
  • Dealing with Snakes in Florida's Residential Areas -- Emergency Planning Written for Florida but covers general topic fully, so it is good worldwide. Published by University of Florida IFAS Extension
  • Notes on venomous animals, unknown envenomation, clinical assessment, clinical management and antivenom by Australian Venom Research Unit First Aid Clinical
    Signs and symptoms of bites by Australian venomous snakes, First Aid, Hospital management of snakebite, Snake Venom Detection Kits, Australian Snake Antivenoms, Administration of antivenoms, Premedication, Serum Sickness, Suggested quantities of antivenoms to be held by hospitals, Further reading on first aid for snakebite and on envenomation
  • Account of Bite by Lowland Viper - The World of Atheris - A Guide to the African Bush Vipers and the Atherini Tribe .html">In California - species list, range maps, photo index, identifiction by Very good identification system and photos. May be helpful in some other states for identification of non-poisonous snakes.

    Scorpions and Insects - First Aid & Medical
    return index

    If do not see what need, go to Venomous Animals in General

  • Scorpion Resoures on the Internet
  • Signs and Symptoms of Envenomation
    Australian Spider and Insect Bites Dr. Struan K. Sutherland, Director Venom Research Unit Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne.
    Spiders: Funnel Web, Red Back, White tail, Other Spiders
    Ticks Bees, Wasps and ants

    Stinging Caterpillars - First Aid, Medical Treatment  return index

    (also info on non-stinging which are the huge majority)

    If do not see what need, go to Venomous Animals in General

  • Stinging and Venomous Caterpillars photos for identification - D.E. Short, D.H. Habeck and J.L. Castner2, University of Florida, Cooperative Extensino Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science Stinging and Venomous Caterpillars1
  • Medical Emergency - Poisonous Caterpillars The Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP Spanish (English version not currently available last visit)
  • photo guide to Stinging and Non-stinging Caterpillars Stinging Caterpillars - A Guide to Recognition of Species Found on Alabama Trees Auburn University
  • emedicine - Excerpt from Caterpillar Envenomations (full text for members) Excerpt discusses pathophysiology
  • Stinging Caterpillars By Ric Bessin, Extension Entomologist University of Kentucky Department of Entomology (photos) Buck-Io-Puss-Saddleback-Euclea delphinii Euclea-Hag Moth-Stinging Rose

    Care In Captivity       return to index

    Editorial: Although this page is about the medical aspects of envenomation and emergency treatment, the creature causing these problems are doing so for protection and deserve to be treated humanely and not caused to suffer or to starve to death. The following sites can give some information on correct care in captivity, but the best solution is to care enough to find the right conditions for the particular species held including proper handling.

  • Melissa Kaplan's Herp Care Collection: Care Article Pages Amphibians(Caecilians, frogs, toads, salamanders and newts)-Chelonians (Turtles and tortoises)-Green Iguana-Invertebrates(Prey insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and various others)-Lizards and Crocodilians(alligators, caiman, gharial and crocodiles) Lizards-Snakes

  • CARE OF SNAKES Columbia Animal Hospital Columbia MD

    Societies       return to index

  • IST - International Society on Toxinology mainly snake links
  • HerpIndex for extensive list of links to societies and organizations and published journals

    Journals       return to index

  • Toxicon - An Interdisciplinary Journal on the Toxins Derived from Animals, Plants and Microorganisms Official Journal of The International Society on Toxinology
  • Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins A biannual electronic publication of the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP - of the Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP. Portuguese and English

    Universal Antivenom Project       return to index

  • Universal Antivenom Project Initial development of a universal antivenom described. Site in reconfiguration..

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