Pressure Immobilization Method: Links to discussion

In the United States - Re: Pit Viper (Crotalidae family) Snakebites - There is disagreement in the U.S. about use of this method on bites of the Crotalidae family of venomous snakes (pit viper) which includes rattlesnakes, copperheads and cottonmouths/water moccasins:

The Following Do Not Recommended Use of Pressure Immobilization Method for pit viper bites (rattlesnakes, copperheads and cottonmouths/water moccasins):

  • Southwest Missouri State University Bull Shoals Field Station source "... this technique is generally not recommended for pit viper bites."
  • Merck source The pressure immobilization (crepe bandages) method is not recommended in the USA for pit viper bites because local necrosis may be increased.

    The Following Recommend Use of Pressure Immobilization Method

  • eMedicine source all snake bites
  • National Association of EMS Physicians source in cases of delayed or prolonged transportation
  • HealthMeds source recommended (family of snake not indicated) and also for bee or wasp stings when the reaction is severe, but not for insect and spider bites when "...insect or spider bite causes a potentially fatal allergic reaction known as anaphylactic shock..." Check source for details.

    Published accounts in other countries recommending use of Pressure Immobilization Method although in most part, for other than the pit viper (Crotalidae) family of snakes:

  • France - European Vipers (Vipera Aspis - Vipera Berus): Management Principles source
  • India - source recommended in general if suffering symptoms listed
  • Australia - Australian Venom Research Unit
  • Australia - CSL Antivenom Handbook Index first aid, emergency numbers, antivenom

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