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CPR instructions or how to do CPR - this page gives emergency procedures and techniques. Includes first aid help to save person not breathing, no pulse, unconscious, no heart beat for baby, child or adult CPR, give assistance, CPR breathing, heart massage or chest compression for drowning, asthma attack, heart attack, smoke inhalation, breathing in smoke. CPR training

Last link check 14 August 07

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The information provided must not be used as the sole basis for education, diagnosis, or for treatment. Other sources, including professional medical opinion, should be consulted before taking any action.
Be prepared: Take a CPR or first aid class.

CPR For Infants, Children, Adults
Person not breathing or not responding (grunting, gasping or snorting)
Related pages:  Heimlich Maneuver Institute  CPR Animal  All Emergency Help Page

CPR performed by bystanders has saved many lives

Please Note: There has been a significant change in the recommended number of times to do chest pressure. For good explanation, see: News-Medical.net

  • CPR INSTRUCTIONS FOR BABY
  • CPR INSTRUCTIONS FOR CHILD
  • CPR INSTRUCTIONS FOR AGE 8 and OLDER (Adult)

    Related Link: CPR-U of Washington School of Medicine English Spanish Chinese - Excellent Guide + Videos To Help Someone Not Breathing, Moving, Responding

     

    CPR INSTRUCTIONS FOR BABY     return to index

    FIRST Get somebody to call EMERGENCY immediately (911 in US) If you are alone do CPR for a full 2 minutes before calling.

    No Longer Recommended:


  • Do not try to check pulse
  • Do not remove water from lungs if drowning Water in the lungs does not obstruct CPR and attempting to remove it may cause damage.

    Risk: No documentation that HIV or AIDS has ever been transmitted by CPR.

    Additional steps on how to do CPR procedure for a baby


    (if you are alone, read ALL of the following below and do the cycle for 2 full minutes before calling emergency, and then continue CPR)

    1. If baby does not respond to tapping on shoulder or a shout, lay baby on its back.

    2. Open mouth with fingers and be sure that tongue is not blocking throat. Do not do this without looking. Use finger sweep to remove any blockage. Do not do a blind finger sweep. Look at what you are doing.

    3. If not possible neck injury, place hand on forehead and other hand under chin, and gently tilt head back to free tongue so as not to block windpipe.

    4. Cover mouth and nose with your mouth or hold nose shut and blow 2 times (chest should rise).
    If air does not seem to be going through or chest does NOT rise when doing breaths, look inside mouth using finger sweep to remove any blockage. Do not do a blind finger sweep. Look at what you are doing.

    5. Put middle two fingers (3rd and 4th) in middle of chest just below level of nipples.

    6. Gently press down 30 times about 1/3 of depth of chest at a rate of a little less than about 2 per second (100 per minute)

    7. CYCLE:
    2 breaths (both mouth and nose covered) and then
    30 chest presses (a little less than 2 per second) with middle fingers

    8. If you feel pulse return, continue with breaths only.

    9. Continue until there is movement or rescue team comes.

    10. If baby vomits, turn the head to the side and try to sweep out or wipe off the vomit. Continue with CPR.
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    CPR instructions for CHILD (8 years old or under)   return to index

    FIRST

  • Get somebody to call EMERGENCY immediately (911 in US)
  • If you are alone do CPR for 2 full minutes before calling.

    No Longer Recommended:


  • Do not try to check pulse
  • Do not remove water from lungs if drowning Water in the lungs does not obstruct CPR and attempting to remove it may cause damage.

    Risk: No documentation that HIV or AIDS has ever been transmitted by CPR.


    How to do CPR on a child
    (If you are alone, do steps 1 thru 6 and do the cycle 2 full minutes before calling emergency, and then continue CPR)

    1. Place on back

    2. Look inside mouth using finger sweep to remove any blockage. Do not do a blind finger sweep. Look at what you are doing.

    3. If not possibility of neck injury, gently tilt head back to free tongue from blocking windpipe (hand on forehead and other hand under chin)

    4. Hold nose shut - cover mouth with your mouth and give 2 breaths (each 2 seconds and see chest rise)
    If air does not seem to be going through or chest does NOT rise when doing breaths, look inside mouth using finger sweep to remove any blockage. Do not do a blind finger sweep. Look at what you are doing.

    5. Then put heel of one hand on the center of the chest (midway between nipples)

    6. Press down about 1/3 of depth of chest 30 times at a rate of a little less than about 2 per second (100 per minute)

    7. CYCLE: Repeat 2 breaths and 30 chest press

    8. If you feel pulse return, continue with breaths only

    9. Continue until there is movement or rescue team comes

    10. If child vomits, turn the head to the side and try to sweep out or wipe off the vomit. Continue with CPR.

    return


     

    CPR instructions for ADULT (anyone over 8 years old)
    return to index

  • Very IMPORTANT: CALL EMERGENCY FIRST for individuals over age 8 if at all possible and then do CPR (the older the individual, the greater the possibility of a heart problem and the need for professional care as soon as possible)

  • If other people, have someone call EMERGENCY immediately (911 in US)

  • Even if you are alone call EMERGENCY immediately (911 in US)

    No Longer Recommended:


  • Do not try to check pulse
  • Do not remove water from lungs if drowning Water in the lungs does not obstruct CPR and attempting to remove it may cause damage.

    Risk: No documentation that HIV or AIDS has ever been transmitted by CPR.


    CPR doubles a person's chance of survival from sudden cardiac arrest. [Eisenberg]

    What are CPR procedures for an adult
    IMPORTANT: CALL EMERGENCY FIRST if at all possible due to possibility of heart attack or other emergency event.

    1. Place on back

    2. Open mouth with fingers and be sure that tongue or something else is not blocking throat. Do not do this without looking. Use finger sweep to remove any blockage. Do not do a blind finger sweep. Look at what you are doing.

    3. If not possibility of neck injury, place hand on forehead and other hand under chin, and gently tilt head back to free tongue so not blocking windpipe

    4. Hold nose shut - cover mouth with your mouth and give 2 breaths (each 1.5-2 seconds and see chest rise)
    If air does not seem to be going through or chest does NOT rise when doing breaths, look inside mouth using finger sweep to remove any blockage. Do not do a blind finger sweep. Look at what you are doing.

    5. Put heel of one hand midway between nipples and put other hand on top of first

    6. Press down 30 times to a depth of about 1 1/2 to 2 inches at a rate of a little less than about 2 per second (100 per minute)

    7. CYCLE: Repeat 2 breaths followed by 30 chest presses

    8. If you feel pulse return, continue with breaths only

    9. Continue until movement or rescue team comes

    10. If person vomits, turn the head to the side and try to sweep out or wipe off the vomit. Continue with CPR.


    return


    Extra procedure which may add to effectiveness of CPR
    (procedure not yet approved by American Heart Association)
    Studies indicate that if another person presses down gently on the stomach above naval, immediately after the chest is pressed down, the recovery rate is greater. Must be done in rhythm. See discussion below. Source: See Purdue.edu below.

    *If person was drowning, do not attempt to remove water from person.
    "There is no evidence that water acts as an obstructive foreign body, and time should not be wasted in attempting to remove water from the victim. Such maneuvers can cause injury but—more importantly—will delay CPR, particularly support of airway and ventilation." [AHA 001]

    return

    This page has been approved by Dr. Mickey Eisenberg


    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) consists of mouth-to-mouth respiration and chest compression.

    For definitions, information on CPR and a list of
    frequently asked questions, go to

    http://depts.washington.edu/learncpr/askdoctor.html

    References
    Mickey Eisenberg M.D. at learncpr@u.washington.edu
    University of Washington School of Medicine

    Purdue University
    http://www.vet.purdue.edu/iaccpr/index.html "CPR with the addition of interposed abdominal compressions by a second or third rescuer, applied in counterpoint to the rhythm of chest compression." Extra procedure which may add to effectiveness of CPR (procedure not yet approved by American Heart Association). Studies indicate that if another person presses down gently on the stomach above naval, immediately after the chest is pressed down, the recovery rate is greater. Must be done in rhythm. See discussion below.

    ALSO SEE
    [AHA 00] Major Guidelines American Heart Association
    The American Heart Association has initiated a new subscriber "We are pleased to provide FREE access to all full-text material published in Circulation that is at least 12 months old. All material published within the last 12 months will require a paid subscription for full-text access or full-text articles may be purchased individually for $15. Tables of Content and Abstracts will remain available to all users of Circulation Online.

  • The following may be of interest: source Currently requires subscription or small one time fee.
    The Most Important Changes in the International ECC and CPR Guidelines 2000
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-371 - I-376. [Full Text]

    Part 1: Introduction to the International Guidelines 2000 for CPR and ECC : A Consensus on Science
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-1 - I-11. [Full Text]

    Part 2: Ethical Aspects of CPR and ECC
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-12 - I-21. [Full Text]

    Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-22 - I-59. [Full Text]

    Part 9: Pediatric Basic Life Support
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-253 - I-290. [Full Text]

    Part 10: Pediatric Advanced Life Support
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-291 - I-342. [Full Text]

    Part 11: Neonatal Resuscitation
    Circulation 2000 102 [Suppl I]: I-343 - I-357. [Full Text]

  • Lessstress.com http://www.lessstress.com/cprintro.htm
    Gives simulations in all types of situations. What would you do if something happened? Very educational and helpful.

    Rhythmic Abdomen Press with Chest Press
    Source: http://www.vet.purdue.edu/iaccpr/index.html
    IAC stands for interposed abdominal compression. IAC-CPR includes all the steps of conventional external cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the addition of interposed abdominal compressions by a second or third rescuer, applied in counterpoint to the rhythm of chest compression. Pulses of central abdominal pressure are applied with overlapping hands just headward of the umbilicus alternating with chest compressions. Scattered early reports published between 1957 and 1980 hinted at the virtue of abdominal binding and abdominal compression in the resuscitation of children and animals from cardiac arrest. In the decade of the 1980s extensive studies in animals and in electronic models suggested a rough doubling of systemic blood flow when interposed abdominal compressions were added to otherwise standard CPR. In the 1990s randomized clinical trials involving several hundred patients showed a doubling of immediate resuscitation success and longer term survival with IAC-CPR, compared to standard CPR. American Heart Association committees on emergency cardiovascular care are currently evaluating, IAC-CPR in evidence-based reviews of national Guidelines for both basic and advanced life support. Blayne Roeder Charles F. Babbs, MD, PhD



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