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Link Check 30 September 2008    Updated 30 September 2008

Page Index
First aid and medical management procedures by snake
Sites With Lists of Producers and Types of Antivenom Worldwide
Where to Find Antivenom
Additional Assistance Finding Antivenom
Recommendations, Discussion

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For transferral to Main Venomous Bite/Sting Page
First aid and medical management procedures by snake
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Protocol Index giving first aid and medical management procedures by snake.
"If additional assistance or advice is needed, it is recommended that you contact your local poison control center, or the San Diego Regional Poison Control Center at 800 876-4766." Terence M. Davidson M.D.
Sites With Lists of Producers and Types of Antivenom Worldwide
to page index

  • Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN)
    VERY USEFUL Includes:
    • List of antivenom and producers worldwide    
    • List of holding centers worldwide for each antivenom    
    • List of species and indicated antivenoms

      Producers antivenom and serum: Australia CSL, Brasil Instituto Burtantan, Costa Rica Instituto Clodomiro, Croatia Inst. of Immunology, France Aventis Pasteur, France Pasteur Merieux, Germany Twyford, India Central Research Institute, India Haffkine, Indonesia Bio Farma, Israel Felsenstein Medical Research, Italy Sclave, Mexico Myn Laboratories, Poland Biomed, South Africa SAIMR, Switzerland Schweizerisches Serum- und Impfinstitut, Switzerland Institut Serotherapique et Vaccinal Suisse, Taiwan Nat.Inst.Prev.Med, Thailand Thai Red Cross, USA MSD, USA Wyeth, USA Protherics.
      List of centers holding the different antivemoms including: centers in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
    • ON-LINE LINKS Worldwide Producers of Antivenoms for treating bites by South East Asian snakes

      Listing of producers with addresses in China, India, Iran, Indonesia, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand
      - (listed by country of producers) compiled by WHOSA INCLUDES China Shanghai Institute of Biological Products, Germany Knoll AG- Ludwigshafen, India Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals-Calcutta, Indonesia Perum Bio Farma (Pasteur Institute)-Bandung, Iran State Serum & Vaccine Institute-Teheran, Myanmar (Burma) Myanmar Pharmaceutical Factory-Yangon, Pakistan National Institute of Health, Biological Production Division, Islamabad, India Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals-Calcutta Philippines Biologicals Production Service-Dept of Health-Los Banos-Laguna, Taiwan National Institute of Preventive Medicine-Taipei, Thailand The Thai Red Cross Society-Bangkok,
    • ON-LINE LINKS Antivenom Producers Worldwide compiled by

      Many producers not listed elsewhere: South Africa Vaccine Producers PTY Ltd.-Sandringham, Taiwan Institute of Preventive Medicine-National Taiwan University, China Shanghai Institute of biological products, Ministry of Public Health-Shanghai India Bengal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Ltd.-Calcutta India Central Research Institute of Kasuli-Kasuli, India Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Co-Bombay India Serum Institute of India-Pune, Indonesia Biofarma-Bandung, Iran RAZI Vaccine & Serum Research Institute-Teheran, Myanmar Pharmaceutical Factory-Yangon, Pakistan Natinal Institute of Health-Islamabad, Philippines Bilogical Production Service=Manila Taiwan-Natinal Institute of Preventive Medicine-Taipei, Thailand The Government Pharmaceutical Organization-Bangkok, Thailand National Blood Center, Bangkok, Thailand Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Uzbekistan Uzo Bio Pharm-Tashkenk, Australia CSL Ltd. Victoria France Basteur Merieux Connanght-Lyon Brazil Instituto Butantan- Sao Paulo
    • source dtd 10 Jan 07
      • Central Research Institute of Kasauli, HP*
      • Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, MS*
      • VINS Bioproducts Ltd., Andhra Pradesh
      • Kings Institute of Preventive Medicines, Chennai*
      • Bharat Serums & Vaccines Ltd., Mumbai
        * Approximately 5 lakh vials are produced annually.

    • SOS Reptiles Producteurs de serums antivenimeux (producers of antivenom serums). Gives address, phones, fax, antiserum type, target venom
      • Al Algousa Sharea , Egypte
      • Aventis Pasteur , France
      • Behringwerke AG , Allemagne
      • Bio Farma , Indonיsie
      • Biological Production Service , Philippines
      • Central Research Institute , Inde
      • CSL Pharmaceutical Information Service , Australie
      • Institute of Immunology Inc. , Croatie
      • Institut Pasteur d’Algיrie , Algיrie
      • Institut Pasteur du Maroc , Maroc
      • Institut Pasteur de Tunis , Tunisie
      • Institut Pasteur Production , France
      • Instituto Butantan , Brasil
      • Instituto Clodomiro Picado , Costa Rica
      • Knoll AG , Allemagne
      • Laboratorios de Biologicos y Reactivos de Mexico , Mexique
      • National Antivenom and Vaccine Production Centre , Arabie Saoudite
      • National Institute of Health , Pakistan
      • Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute , Iran
      • Serum Institute of India Ltd , Inde
      • South African Vaccine Producers , Rיpublique d'Afrique du Sud
      • The Governement Pharmaceutical Organisation , Thaןlande
      • Therapeutic Antibodies , USA
      • The tai Red Cross Society , Thaןlande
      • Wyeth-ayerst Laboratories , USA

Where to Find ANTIVENOMS to page index
  • Australia
  • CSL Ltd ANTIVENOM PRODUCERS Phone: ++61-3-9389-1624 Toll free: 1800 642 865 Fax: ++61-3-9389-1160 Telex: AA32789 Email:
    CSL Antivenom for following: Tiger snake, Funnel web spider, Brown snake, Redback spider, Taipan, Australian paralysis tick, Black snake, Box jellyfish, Death adder, Stonefish, Sea snake, Polyvalent snake
  • (All hours number for referral to a CSL consultant on the use of antivenom and the management of envenoming) (03) 9389 1911

  • CSL Biotherapies AustraliaM/a>
    Antivenoms as of 29 September 2008
    • Black Snake Antivenom    
    • Box Jellyfish Antivenom    
    • Brown Snake Antivenom    
    • Death Adder Antivenom    
    • Funnel Web Spider Antivenom    
    • Polyvalent Snake Antivenom    
    • Red Back Spider Antivenom    
    • Sea Snake Antivenom    
    • Stonefish Antivenom For the treatment of symptoms of a venomous sting. CSL Biotherapies    
    • Taipan Antivenom    
    • Tiger Snake Antivenom

  • Listing updated to 29 September 2008 Wikipedia on Butantan Institute Gives links to photos of snakes, spider, scorpion, bee for which antivenoms are produced.
    • Anti-Bothropic    
    • Anti-Crotalic    
    • Anti-Bothropic-Crotalic    
    • Anti-Elapidic    
    • Anti-Bothropic-Lachetic    
    • Anti-Escorpionic (Scorpion)    
    • Anti-Arachnidic (spider)    
    • Anti-Lonomia (caterpillar of aturniid moth)    
    • Anti-Africanized Bee

    Product list of Butantan Institute in Portuguese.
    • Anti-botrópico    
    • Anti-crotálico    
    • Anti-botrópico-crotálico    
    • Anti-elapídico    
    • Anti-botrópico-laquético    
    • Anti-escorpiônico    
    • Anti-aracnídico    
    • Anti-lonômico    
    • Anti-abelha africanizada

  • Ontario Antivenin Bank
    Indian River Reptile Zoo - Canada's Only Accredited Reptile Zoo
    Bry Loyst, Curator
    Phone: Zoo: (705) 639-1443 Fax: (705) 639-1620 e-mail:
    The Ontario Antivenin Bank was founded in 1999 by Bry Loyst and Rue Calton. The purpose of this (non-profit) incorporated organization is to provide a reliable source of many kinds of antivenin for the sole purpose of saving human lives. The objective of the Bank is to acquire and maintain antivenom for as many venomous reptiles as possible. The Bank makes antivenin available for emergency purposes to hospitals as required.
    Address: Ontario Antivenin Bank, 2206 RR#3 HWY#7, Indian River, Ontario, Canada K0L 2B0
    Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Clodomiro Picado
    anti-coral: especifico para los envenenamientos de las corales de tres anillos de colores anti-gargantilla o anti-mipartitus: suero para mordeduras de la coral de dos anillos de colores, polivalente: se usa en todos aquellos casos de accidentes of?dicos causados por "tobobas", especies de la familia Viperidae, polivalente veterinario : s?lo para uso en animales
    Index Directory
  • antivenom Stocklist of Richard Mastenbroek (As of July 21, most antivenom vials listed have expired. Call to update. "For emergencies my antivenom against the snakes I keep in my collection is always available inside Europe!!!" Call or e-mail me for more information, Phone +31 62 88 41 839, E-mail:
    As of 2002, had following antivenom (some expired but possibly renewed):
    SAIMR: (Polyvalent) Puff adder (Bitis arietans), Gaboen viper (B. gabonica), Rinkhals (Hemachatus heamachatus), Green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps),Jameson·s mamba (D. jamesoni), Black mamba (D. polylepis), Cape cobra (Naja nivea), Forest cobra (N. melanoleuca), Snouted cobra (N.haje annulifera), Mossambique Spitting cobra (N. mossambica),
    CSL: (Polyvalent) Sea snakes (Hydrophidae), Brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis), Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus), Black snakes (Pseudoechis australis), Taipans (Oxyuranus scuttelatus), Deathadders ( Acanthopis antarcticus ), Sea snakes (Hydrophidae), Brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis), Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus), Black snakes (Pseudoechis australis), Taipans (Oxyuranus scuttelatus), Deathadders ( Acanthopis antarcticus ), Monovalent: Brown snake (Pseudonaja textiis),
    Thai Red Cross: (Monovalent) Black and White Spitting Cobra (Naja siamensis), Monocle Cobra (Naja kaouthia), King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciates),
    Butantan: (Polyvalent) Urutu (B. alternatus), Caicaca (B. atrox), Cotiara (B.cotiara), Catinga lance head (B. erythromelas), Gouden lanspunt slang (B. insularis), Jararaca (B. jararaca), Jararacussa (B.jararacussu), Moojen·s adder ( B. moojeni), Jaraca pintada ( B. neuwiedi), Prado·s Lanspunt slang (B. pradoi),
    Wyeth: (Polyvalent) North/Middle/South American Pitvipers,
    SAIMR (Monovalent) Boomslang (Dispholidus typus)
  • Serum Institute of India Sii Polyvalent Anti-Snake Venom Serum (Snake AntiVenom Serum I.P. (Lyophilised)) As of 3 Oct 2008. Prepared against envenomation of: Cobra (Naja-Naja), Common Krait (Bungarus Caeruleus), Russell's Viper (Vipera Russelli), Saw Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus)
    International Marketing Division
    212/2, Hadapsar, Off Soli Poonawalla Road, Pune-411028. India, +91-20-26993900 +91-20-26993921,
    Domestic Marketing Division
    501, Dalamal Tower,211, Nariman Point, Mumbai-400021. India., +91-22-22840370 +91-22-22044389,
    Saudi Arabia
  • The National Antivenom and Vaccine Production Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the first and only one producer of antivenom for snake bites and scorpion stings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Region. The center is located at the National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh. P.O.Box 22490, Riyadh-11426. Tel: 966-1- 2520 088 Ext: 5626, 5637, 5655. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Fax: 966-1- 2520 188. "Antivenom against all Saudi venomous snakes and all of the highly dangerous scorpions is prepared from immune sera raised mainly in horses. The antivenoms are raised also in goats to be used in victims who are sensitive to horse sera."
    South Africa
  • South African Vaccine Producers Sandringham, Johannesburg which is the vaccine producing unit of the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS) South African Institute for Medical Research (SAIMR). produces antivenom for the treatment of snake, scorpion and spider bites.
    Telephone: +27 11 386-6000 Fax: +27 11 386-6016 email:;;

    A polyvalent antivenom against the venom of the following snakes, spider, scorpion: as of 29 September 2008
    • Puff adder (Bitis arietans)    
    • Gaboon adder (Bitis gabonica)    
    • Rinkhals (Haemachatus haemachatus)    
    • Green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps)    
    • Jameson's mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni)    
    • Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)    
    • Cape cobra (Naja nivea)    
    • Forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca)    
    • Snouted Cobra previously ' Egyptian cobra' (Naja annulifera) and the    
    • Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja Mossambica)    
    • Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) only producer of a monovalent antivenom effective against the bite of the .    
    • Exotic Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis carinatus/ocellatus)    
    • Spider Antivenom: Latrodectus indistinctus.    
    • Scorpion Antivenom: Parabuthus transvaalicus.
    • Vaccine Research and Development Center of National Health Research Institute (NHRI) proposed mission is to "...produce cGMP-grade traditional vaccines and anti-venom serum for local use." "...ten types of biological agents are produced and supplied to the health-care units nationwide, including..." antivenoms for hundred pace snake (Deinagkistrodon acutus), umbrella snake (Bungarus multicinctus), Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra), turtle-designed snake (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus), Taiwan bamboo viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri), anti-sera against chain snake (Daboia russellii formosensis)
      Linshen Office Address: No.6, Linshen S. Rd., Taipei, Taiwan 100, R.O.C. Phone number: 886-2-2395-9825
      Kunyang Office Address: Address: No.161, KunYang St., Taipei, Taiwan 115, R.O.C. Phone number: 886-2-2785-0513
      Web site:
      United States
    • Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Antivenin Bank (786) 336-6600 Venom Response Program The agency holds a special license that allows it to purchase non-FDA-approved antivenin from other countries, including coral snake antivenin. For antivenom held by the bank, see next item below. "The Venom Response Team currently maintains the largest and only antivenom bank for public use in the United States. The Team employs the latest techniques to prevent morbidity and mortality through antivenom intervention 24 hours a day, seven days a week, locally, nationally, and internationally."
    • Provides extensive antivenom list held by Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Antivenin Bank located in Miami, Florida United States - Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Envenomation Emergency Phone Number: Phone Number: (786)336-6600 Non Emergency Phone Number: (786) 331-4444
      Please see site for full listing of antivenom (antivenin) held by the Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Antivenin Bank.
    • Information and contacts for treatment of bites from the Crotalidae family of venomous snakes which includes rattlesnakes, copperheads and cottonmouths/water moccasins .

    • Wyeth Listing of Antivenin products (800) 395-9938 Mon-Fri 8:30AM-4:30PM EST
      Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent (equine origin)
      Antivenin (Micrurus Fulvius) (Equine Origin) North American Coral Snake

      Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent Wyeth Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent, Wyeth (hereinafter referred to as Antivenin) contains protective substances capable of neutralizing the toxic effects of venoms of crotalids (pit vipers) native to North, Central, and South America, including rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus); copperhead and cottonmouth moccasins (Agkistrodon), including A. halys of Korea and Japan; the Fer-de-lance and other species of Bothrops; the tropical rattler (Crotalus durissus and similar species); the Cantil (A. bilineatus); and bushmaster (Lachesis mutus) of South and Central America.
      North American Coral Snake Antivenin Antivenin (Micrurus fulvius) (equine origin)
      The results of cross-neutralization tests indicate that Antivenin (Micrurus fulvius), Wyeth, will neutralize the venom of M. fulvius tenere (Texas coral snake) but will NOT neutralize the venom of Micruroides euryxanthus (Arizona or Sonoran coral snake).
      Two genera of coral snakes are found in the United States·Micrurus (including the eastern and Texas varieties) and Micruroides (the Sonoran or Arizona variety), found only in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. There are two subspecies of Micrurus fulvius native to the United States: 1) M.f. fulvius, found in the area from eastern North Carolina through the tip of Florida and in the Gulf coastal plain to the Mississippi River; 2) M.f. tenere, the Texas coral snake, found west of the Mississippi River in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas."
      Worldwide Contacts - see map and click Worldwide map

      Fort Dodge Animal Health's products 1-800-685-5656
    • Savage Laboratories
      CroFab (Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab -- Ovine)
      Savage Laboratories Melville, NY 11747
      "A safe, effective way to treat Crotalid (includes rattlesnakes, copperheads and cottonmouths/water moccasins) snakebites in the emergency setting."
      Telephone: (631) 454-7677 or field sales representives 800-231-0206

Additional Possible Assistance in Finding Antivenom to page index

Recommendations, Procedures and Discussion to page index

Projects to page index

  • Universal Elapid/Sea Snake Antivenom Antiven Pty Ltd and Venom Science Pty Ltd and the Institute of Medical & Veterinary Science (IMVS) have been working on new antivenom development for the last 7 years and is currently registering a new veterinary brown snake antivenom against the Australian Pseudonaja genus and in the last 2 years have developed a new anti-elapid antivenom."
  • Development of an Irukandji Jellyfish Antivenom A project undertaken at the Australian Venom Research Unit, University of Melbourne, and supervised by K D Winkel

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