ORGANIZING FOR SUCCESS
Abstract: The steps to critical mission planning are outlined here as an operation checklist and guide to planning. The listing is based on the principle of training for the institution of innovative independent action and the taking of responsibility at all levels of an organization or mission. The planning and training for initiative taking strengthens a system's ability to respond and take independent action when faced with a novel situation for which planning provides no solution, or when communication has been lost, or events on the ground are moving too fast for effective communication and response. The following provides a guide for decision making, a basis for a disaster recovery plan (DRP) or a business continuity plan (BCP) or any operation where overall success is more important than getting in and returning with the flag regardless of the consequences.
Note: This paper is not meant to be definitive and should be treated only as a preliminary outline for action
The following is relevant to any critical field operation as well as for group organization or for creating systems or products for clients. The terminology may be different but the conceptual framework is relevant to each of these fields and other instances in which some control is exercised over the outcome of events whether it is on the individual or group level.
The major causes of failure
Aside from lack of timing, inadequacy of supplies or access, inadequate planning, inadequate data gathered on current condition of environment within which mission is to be accomplished,
and a thousand other variables, the major causes of failure are:
Predetermination of approach before all goals set, data are gathered
Rigidity or inflexibility of approach precluding considering the reality on the ground
Grandstanding by leader or manager attempting to always take center stage
Inadequate division of labor causing overload on particular personnel
Inadequate or blocked access to decision makers with timely data
relating to changes in the situation
Inadequate access to innovative or alternative ways to accomplish mission
Inadequate support made available to team members
Inadequate provision for initiative and self determination on the
action level when communication to central command is severed
or before effective communication and active response established
Initiation of independent action
Something which we do not want to think about is the loss of leadership at the top. However this is always a possibility and until the chain of command can be reinstated there is a gap which if left unfilled by action on the ground may lead to greater loss, suffering and perhaps even defeat.
Any organization must be set up and trained so that in the absence of leadership from the top, the lower echelons, and the personnel on the ground can take responsibility and initiate appropriate action. This requires additional training and an atmosphere which is not usually present in many bureaucratic or highly organized systems. Training and rewards for taking the initiative and the assumption of responsibility for a bottom up or horizontal command capability provides a system with increased latitude and power. Any system instituting this concept throughout an organization would be far stronger and capable of handling any mission whether
it be a disaster or regular operation either within or separated from the normal chain of
command. Such a system will also often benefit from increased innovation in handling situations for which there has been no specific preparation (7).
What happens when independent initiative is not available as an option?
Level of training
Units and different levels of the command structure are less trained and prepared for
novel situations and are less prepared in general even for their own part in the
Training for initiative and responsibility leads to novel solutions which can be
incorporated into the overall advancement of the mission
Advancement of mission
Units focus only on their own segment in a mission without a broader view which could
enable more understanding and flexibility to perform
When faced with communication lapses for whatever reason, action which may be
critical to the overall mission is delayed when confronting a new situation or
Morale is lower when units or individuals are not empowered
Preparation for initiative and leadership in small arenas give greater sense of
responsibility and pride in unit accomplishments
Training would include:
Set of expectations delineating assumption of initiative and responsibility bounded by
Leadership and overall command responsibilities
Training for effective cooperation between unit members
Innovation and problem solving techniques
Multi-tasking in a number of central and crucial possible situations to be encountered
Training in identification of signs of possible problems within the teams, the mission
and within the environment
Training in future ideation – consequence timelines, and interaction juxtaposition
(how elements should work together)
Broad training in information access
Training in communication (making sure that everyone knows how to operate the
available technology and lines of access)
Knowledge of logistics at each level and access to supply chains
Coordination with other groups involved to avoid overlap and interference
Arena available materials identification, location of and use of instead of waiting for
Flexibility management and adaptation
Use of local knowledge and information from the field in forming decisions and operational
Understanding of specific arena characteristics to obtain seamless operational efficiency
Training which will develop the basis for mature judgment through experience
Effective run through of situations so that each member of the team can see the overall
picture and how everything interacts
Advance planning and execution based on foreseen future requirements
Negative aspects which need to be countered are:
Lack of training
Lack of information
Lack of resources
Lack of integration with other efforts being pursued in the arena
The use of independent action is normally part of any organization when the type of action
taken is within a narrow scope of activity or will have relatively little ramification on the
A structure is federated and little emphasis has been placed on chains of command, rules
of action, or when the details of action are in principle left to the lower echelons.
When independent action is dictated by the emergencies of the situation and there is
no response from higher levels, or response is not forthcoming within the time frame, or
response is ineffective given the situation faced on the ground.
Independent, innovative action and the taking of responsibility has been built into the
system and is expected.
This paper focuses on the 3rd and 4th situations and provides a basis for the training,
instituting of rewards for independent and innovative action.
Basically, all of the steps covered here must to some degree be part of any operation or
response. The important first step is to identify the different stages and to assess their
timeline, overlap, and each stage's contributory influences to other stages. Many stages
may in fact overlap in time, material usage, and influence. The most critical job will be to
keep them running concurrently without interference between segments which could
compromise the mission.
This is the stage of developing the goals dictated by the problems or desires which must be
solved or fulfilled. It is the period of reconnaissance in which as much as possible is learned
about the possibilities, the 'lay of the land' and the collection of all data which will be used to
understand the situation within which the mission will be conducted. At this stage
documentation is started which will last throughout the project.
This is the stage in which goals will be linked to all of the possibilities and directions
necessary to their attainment within different possible settings and resource availability
including timing and integration.
This stage places flesh on the bones of the structure created during planning. All materials,
and resources or capabilities for resource delivery are completed. All operations will be
realized in terms of their requirements prior to the actual execution of the plan.
This is the realization stage of the plan in which any gaps in the previous stages are
discovered and must be filled in real time. This stage is the one in which not being prepared
can easily lead to disaster. This is also the stage in which innovation, and necessity of taking
new roads for which there is no preparation needs to be taken.
This stage runs throughout the execution and afterwards to repair, adjust, and reassess
enabling continuation of the operation and the next phase.
Wind down of all actions, protection of all resources, assessment of all attainments and their
meaning for the continuation of and continuity of the organization in the present and the
preparation for the next operation.
This stage is all too often in actuality a new operation in its own right which should be
executed according to all of the stages. It is the result planned for but it is often not at all
what was envisioned. Therefore, in most instances, the preparation for the aftermath must
be scrapped and a new set of rules and procedures instituted to fit the realities of the
Review, evaluation and critique
This stage provides understanding to the degree possible of what occurred and an
assessment of what were successes and failures. This phase is critical for future operations
and must not be overlooked or minimized. At this phase it is very important to have outside
bodies participate in the assessment and to accomplish an independent review and
The following are details of the above stages and are applicable to all situations from individual actions to group endeavors.
Logs, databases, forms, questionnaires, observers, transcribers initiated which will run
throughout all phases of the mission
Setting of overall goal/sub-goals/possible alternative goals
Think, plan and provide globally before devising the intricacies of any operations. Global
definitions will enter into every small part of an operation.
Devise different global views - an incorrect or flawed global view will necessarily lead to
disaster at some level if not to the total operation and its outcomes.
Analysis of goal fulfillment
Be sure of the reasons for the goals you have set
What will be the effect of these goals if realized?
What would be the effect should different goals be set?
What would be the effects of failure on the group?
Before you do anything, find out all you can about the thing you are about to do.
Be able to navigate within the area. This may mean linguistically through the use of
interpreters, understanding of the protocols, prejudices, traditions, worldview of different
segments of the population or group concerned
Learn the history of those who will be involved and how your plan will impact them
and how this will effect the mission
Study and know the area within which the plan will be realized, its parameters, obstacles,
the rules by which the plan will be unfolded and the way in which the participants will
Determine the parameters of movement
Study the other participants and what they bring to the interaction
Environmental parameters which will aid or hinder progress
Within arena resources potentially needed which are already present and available
Available tools, materials, people, skills available within the arena or the population
Major obstacles to overcome and potential solutions
Previous attempts to accomplish mission by self or others
Successes and failures of past attempts
Available resources to obtain historical data
Analysis of historical data
Determine what is available or not available now
as opposed to previous attempts
Find historical incidents similar to the operation planned and learn by example.
Look at a number of well known and documented incidents either
related or unrelated) which succeeded or which went wrong and assess the reasons
for the successes or failures and what could have been done or avoided.
Identify all possible risks – natural and manmade which may enter into any response
Always factor in the presence of outside and potentially disruptive elements - those which
can be foreseen and those which may be totally fortuitous and unpredicted.
Basic organizational structure
Units and chain of command should be clarified and known to all taking part in the mission
Basic funds and resources needed
The basic needs for each stage, the potential sources and methods of commitment and
timing of delivery
Set the basic time sequencing of operations to accomplish task
Resources available including personnel
Basic skills available which will be needed to accomplish mission
Skills and resources within group
Skills and resources from suppliers and other resources
Other potential groups or individuals who may be called in to perform central support
or auxiliary functions
Delineation of the involvement of personnel and support groups, when, where, and how
Basic communications and structure
Communications available and potentially useful or critical to the operation
Types of analysis and monitoring needed
Obtain the opinions of others (participants, analysts, experts) on the
general outline and on different parts of the planned operation.
General rules of planning
Generate a spirit of improvisation and willingness to take responsibility in performing
independent action suited to the exigencies confronted on the front line of any
Decentralization increases the opportunities for success
Never rely solely on your own view of events, or those of close advisors or players.
Most mistakes have been due to not taking outside and conflicting points of view
into consideration. And never attempt to plan or execute a plan on the sole advice of
Never assume what the other party is thinking, their capability, predisposition or ability
to perform. Keep in mind that the other actors taking part in the operation may have a
totally different view of the situation and will themselves have factored in their own
security and protection.
Provide measures which will create the least negative effects should something go wrong.
Preplan methods of ameliorating negative fallout or consequences
Deal with planning and scheduling problems related to options available for
each task and the consequences of each action to determine the
most practical and goal effective methods
Always factor in pullout, shutdown, abort possibilities and methods for accomplishing
with least disruption. This often entails greater preplanning than the planning of the
Generate methods for handling unexpected events
Operations in obtaining goal
Determination of what operations are needed to succeed
Determine areas of flexibility – what is flexible and what is not in terms of tasks, time
line, resource availability
Methods of handling and analyzing alternative suggestions and innovations
Establishing boundaries for the fulfillment of tasks
Establishing rules and methods for cooperation, engagement, retreat, and re-planning
Scheduling, timing and intersection
Timing and integration is critical at all levels
Determination of time line for each action and how it interacts with all other actions
involved in the operation and in the environment
Modeling and dry runs to determine probable success
Create a limited mission with few elements and game play with group of players to
discover what is needed, when, and how much.
Work through scenarios in which planned elements are changed to review the
changes created in the operation and the outcome.
Assess all possibilities so that there is no possible room for surprises
Always answer the questions what, what, what if, when, why, where, how and how much
as a rule of thumb.
Assess the consequences of each action to determine the most practical and goal effective
Push each operation to its logical conclusion and in some cases illogical fallout and
Test all modalities of mission critical equipment and functioning
Chain of command and division of labor
Determination of lines of command or responsibility
Determination of who does what and in what circumstances
Determination of backup for every critical position
Backups and redundancy
Redundancy measures for critical functions
Recovery modes for errors in task completion
Backups for each role or function
Have backup plans or capabilities for each operation
Prepare for backups, re-supply and re-delivery, including possible substitutes, alternative
means and routes of all expendables.
Delineation of barriers which will impede progress
and methods for overcoming
Create what if…? For every possible occurrence to determine what to do given
different types of circumstances
Rules of engagement
Delineation of basic rules of conduct and accountability
Support networks and resources
Support networks established for each position and task
Establish rules of communication
Provision of outside help in emergencies
Establishing parameters for cooperation from within the arena itself
On call facility and resources providers
Provision for cooperation from outside groups even in some cases competitors
Analysis methods of ongoing events
Provide for constant analysis of situational variables, progress and future possibilities
based on changes which are continually fed into the operations as they proceed.
Security and protection
Factor in security and protection of all members as well as those tangentially affected.
Prepare alternative means of protection given any contingency.
Brainstorm all possible scenarios where protection or security may be necessary.
Response protocols and rules
Develop specific responses for all risks identified and
general response protocol which will prepare for unexpected risks
Methods of accountability and follow-up
Methods and rules for disclosure
Rules, types and methods for public relations
Consequences and outcomes
Factor in how the operation and its outcomes will effect other operations, players, social
and political bodies.
Re-plan sequences after each unforeseen change in the conduct of an operation.
Plan for aftermath and all possible consequences
Plan meticulously for aftermath - all possible scenarios including those not envisioned.
In many cases the aftermath takes more planning and has greater consequences
than the operation itself.
This is the stage of logistics and training - the obtaining and positioning of materials and
players towards the stage of execution. During this stage a great deal of flexibility and re-planning must take place based on the availability of resources, capabilities of storage and positioning and arranging for the timing of receipt and planned use of resources.
This is the stage in which planning is finalized based on the availability and positioning of resources and the capabilities of personnel. Finalization must be created through in-depth analysis of all measurable factors involved.
Assess supply needs, acquisition, arrangement for storage and delivery at
Assess the capabilities of your team(s) and your own capabilities.
Always have sufficient players to fulfill all parts of the operation in terms of knowledge,
capability and training
Training and overall preparation of all personnel
Mock play through, rehearsal, and simulation in real time or computer modeling
for purposes of training, and determination of gaps in knowledge, capabilities and
interaction with other team members and other teams
Multiple role training so that any individual can take over and fulfill a
number of different positions.
Training, information and written protocols which can be accessed in an emergency
Testing and evaluation
Run-through and testing of the different operation options to identify gaps and
areas needing further training or change in modality
Testing of personnel in terms of capability to perform within the context of the tam and
Testing and finalization of procurement and delivery of all needed
Equipment, training, knowledge of theater of operation
Training for optimum use of encounters with competitors, friendlies, or hostiles.
Checking of communications and alternatives available
Cohesion of teams and clarification of points of possible friction
What if? analysis
What if?' planning so that all possibilities of changes in scenarios of planned action
due to probable, improbable and unexpected factors will be covered
Identification of areas which are incomplete, lacking, or might produce problems in actual
interaction in theater of operation.
Identification of environmental variables (supplies, availabilities of material from previous
actions, reuse of equipment, possible replication) which can be used to advantage thus
reducing the reliance on centralized procurement and delivery
Identification and accounting of real time action variables (juxtaposition of forces, tradeoffs,
cross actions, turning points and changes in requirements in supplies, types of material
needed, changes in rules of conduct, changes in form of engagement)
Psychological factors involved
Establish the morale, knowledge and acceptance of goal and reasons for the action.
Establish an atmosphere for innovation, independent action and responsibility where
action must be taken and there is lack of communication or clear guidelines to action.
Integrate plans into wider area plans which are in place by other agencies or entities.
Integration and early warning systems should interact to provide feedback and support.
Set priorities for each agenda: action, protection, response, preservation, recovery
In the event of an emergency or during any operation is will not always be possible to
complete all functions – which are the most valuable or necessary for continuance and
continuity (some are not necessarily recognizable as such).
Review operations in relation to timing, communication, supply, chains of command
Evaluate condition and characteristics of all environmental, social and physical factors
which could impact on the operation.
Develop a check list for updates on any changes which need to be considered.
Checking and enhancement of security of operation on all levels
Checking and enhancement of the safety of personal including protection systems for each
entity – personnel, material, communication, resources. Each grouping needs a
specialized protection system which includes protection against known dangers as well as
protocols covering any unknown or unexpected danger. This should also include the
development of maintenance procedures which will reduce long term problems
Special provision for real time monitoring using different modalities with backups and
Develop listing of telltale signs of problems, how to recognize them, and what to do when
Maintenance and updating
Maintenance schedules should be set for all renewable factors in the mission
Procedures for updating all equipment, programs, communication should be instituted
This is self explanatory – or is it? There are a number of indicators which test the degree to
which the preceding stages were accomplished successfully or not if any of the items below
are not fulfilled or actively in place
Provide an effective early warning system which will reach 90+% of those effected
Provide for a way to monitor the receipt of the warning and action related to it
Follow up with a sustained and effective means of dealing with the effects of the
Provide for the capability of effective response to the early warning. In many cases this may
be one of the more difficult parts of a mission.
It is during this stage that several types of monitoring must be in place:
Monitoring of all functions which will enable identification of environmental,
personnel and resource availability and interaction and sufficiency for mission
continuity in real time and to provide for review and critiques at later stages.
Monitoring of scheduling, delivery and
sufficiency of supplies, sufficiency of personnel,
There must be clear indications and measurable indices of each of the above to enable
effective decision making, indices which can signal advancement, retreat, abort
sequences, or changing of the goals within the mission given real time necessities.
Constantly assess the resources available in the theater of action (already in the arena,
available through conventional resources, available as an outcome of the action itself)
Concurrent analysis during active phases of the operation
Possible error analysis: Correction and decision making based on analysis of all things
which can go wrong given the actual operation on the ground
Flow diagrams of operation in progress to assess next steps given environmental,
personnel, interaction, equipment vectors
Real time feedback from different vantage points, and different modalities
Real time updating of those carrying out the operation
Provision for containment
Identification of the need for containment
Parameters of containment
Measures in instituting containment
Check against the major causes of failure of containment
Constant check of the effectiveness of containment
Contingency operations and shifting of preplanned actions
There must be latitude for shifts in operations provided by sufficient backups, and
preplanning for most contingencies.
Be prepared for sudden shifts in rules, projected occurrences, order of presentation some
of which may totally change the way in which the operation is handled and played out
including the possible consequences and needs for security and protection.
Be constantly prepared to reassess and adjust
Where there is no preplanning and a lack of supplies or command for certain
contingencies, there must be the ability, backed up by training and experience,
to take the initiative and the responsibility on the local level if lives are to be
saved or the goals of the operation are to be realized.
Constantly check for clear chain of command without overlap from other groups, agencies
or individuals with an interest or legal right to intercede. These should be included as
detailed lines of approval within the chain and not pose as unplanned decision makers
Have alternative ways to do each operation accessible both theoretically and
operationally given changes in the arena or problems encountered
Always be willing to look at conventional wisdom as well as alternative and even highly
Preplan all possibilities including those not generally accepted by conventional wisdom
and general knowledge of the field.
Continual input of open information channels
Where public policy is involved, keep open well advertised public forums and capability
for response and question-asking along with follow-up and review by those making the
Always have instant feedback capabilities to the participants from the decision makers in
order to provide information, timing, and change in direction or operation.
Recovery should always be preplanned since any operation entails the possibility of some
form of negative risk, feedback, change in the parameters of 'business as usual', and there
must be sufficient planning to guarantee continuity. We usually think in terms of disaster
recovery, but in fact any large scale operation carries with it the potential of disruption,
changed fiscal position and liquidity and access to resources, as well as changes in the
atmosphere in the organization and within the lives of the individuals involved in the
Recovery is an ongoing part of any operation and should be meticulously planned prior to an
incident or initiation of action. Failure to institute recovery measures and providing for
continuity during an operation including the necessary personnel and material support and
expertise to accomplish it in a timely manner can severely compromise the effectiveness
of a mission.
Preparing for recovery and continuity
Identification of gaps
Establishing timing – assessed length of time between breakdown of critical functions and
failure of sub-mission, length of time to repair or reestablish continuity (6)
Pre-identification of hazards or risks which will create a lapse in continuity during mission
critical operations (6)
Managing for external intrusion and internal compromise
Develop signs of potential breakdown which, apart from major
damage due to mission accomplishment and backlash, will
alert unit of impending breakdown or insufficiency.
Establishing alternative means to perform critical functions
Formulation of alternative measures to ensure continuity
Institute redundancies of materials and personnel which can
immediately fill any gaps in operation occasioned by
breakdown, exhaustion of resources, destruction
Pre-planning for executing recovery of (a non-exhaustive listing):
data still existing on hard drives of computers otherwise destroyed, codes and plans
needed for continuation, etc.
Lost or ineffective communication
Personnel in the arena who are crucial to continuance but who have been compromised
momentarily for any number of reasons
Communication links which have been compromised through intrusion by hackers,
virus/worm attacks or spy programs
Material assets which have been damaged but are still viable with repair or part
Restoration of communication with those units or service providers and suppliers needed
for providing continuity
Identify backup or redundant personnel or services prepared to perform recovery
functions under adverse conditions if necessary
Develop protocols for repair and recovery of critical functions.
Institution of procedures
Perform regular checks of mission critical functions which should be automatic checks
Recovery should be accomplished in accordance with preparation.
Where there has not been preparation or when the unexpected occurs, the training,
atmosphere and the command structure should be capable of allowing for innovation,
independent operation of personal, and acceptance of responsibility at the ground level
for maintaining continuity.
Have a cyber incident response (CIRT) plan
Make sure that all communications are secure or do not transmit sensitive information
Provide for remote capabilities in event of main communication breakdown
Develop strategies for filtering communications which are fraud, intent on disruption
Recovery procedures and alternative means of communication should be instituted
Provision for dealing with disorientation, loss of morale, instability
Provision should be made for group support interaction, individual psychological help,
debriefing, and reality checks particularly in sensitive missions
Wrap-up is not just the end of the operation and withdrawal from the field. It comprises a
number of identifiable operations. In actuality, wrap-up during the operations at the end of
sub-stages is possible and if handled correctly, effective in preparation for the next stages
of the operation
Make any successes stable and failures mollified or turned to advantage based on
new perspectives (lessons learned, data generated which can be useful for future
Debriefing to some extent should always occur for those involved to reduce
psychological load, to better understand what happened on the individual and
unit level, desensitization if needed, and learning from individual experiences
what transpired both physically and psychologically
Recording of experiences and ideas for the next operation
Replay of crucial operations to learn for future use
Recording of events from the view point of the participants for
historical purposes and documentation
Recording for use in debriefing
To prevent reoccurrence or provide for greater access
Analyze and put in place measures which in a disaster will help prevent a reoccurrence
or ease dealing with it, or to help future missions to operate more effectively
Analysis of data should be carried out to better understand the causes and lead-ups
to successes and failures and understanding of gaps in supply and operation
Editing of real time data transmissions and analyses made during the operation for future
use and reporting
public relations and reporting
rewards given for accomplishments
The aftermath is usually considered to be any operation after the main operation and is
therefore downgraded in importance and often performed with scant attention. However, this
is in many cases a new operation and should be treated as such. Many failures are
experienced during this phase which often degrade the successes of the 'main' operation or
in some cases actually saves the operation from its failures. In point of fact, the aftermath
is often more important than the operation itself since it pre-positions for the next event
which may be deadlier or costlier or wider spread.
Cleanup, repair, adjust, re-supply, reposition
Restart planning process
Adjust planning for new reality – In many cases none of the old planning is relevant in the
Instituting forms of security and protection of personnel for the long run is
Setting in place security measures and protection of affected populations from internal or
Initiate early warning systems on a number of levels
Reassess and develop new strategies in all areas to improve early warning, response and
Position and make readily available documents and data which will be needed in future
Analysis from unit and command levels
Analyze the outcome from the point of view of a number of different disciplines.
Reconstruct sequencing, timing, availability of materials, personnel and knowledge
Have different parts of the analysis team focus on a different aspect of the operation and
provide for feedback and interconnectedness of teams and members during the analysis
Gather all possible data and, where appropriate, materials involved and arrange for their
storage, security and safekeeping against all forms of intrusion, or disturbance.
Do not allow concentration on any failed portion of an operation to cloud all the factors
which might have contributed to the incident as it occurred.
Review, evaluation, reconstruction and critique
While part of this is accomplished in a number of ways in the
wrap-up, this is an ongoing process which many have little or
nothing to do with the participants in the operation but with the
overall successes or failures. In some cases this stage takes
years to complete.
Some of the events and data can only be understood within the context of a timeline often
running years before and after an event.
Reconstruction of what occurred and the reasons for successes and failures by the system
itself improves the future response of the system in general. Such reconstruction can be
the basis for reorganization and the changing of suppliers, equipment, data and
command flows, information gathering and use processes within the organization.
This is also a basis for learning and identifying best procedures
Critique and investigation panels
Set up criteria for the review and critique
This should be conducted by outside and independent sources provides the basis for
comprehensive understanding of the operation. This will often (if not always) highlight
areas not seen or looked at by all internal critiques and reconstructions
If the operation has been publicized, set up a public forum to obtain feedback and critique
some of which will have perspectives at angles often missed by regular panels.
Provide an information database for review and for any personnel who will be part of the
Publish reconstructions, critiques and investigations including the successes and failures
as future guides as well as thoughts on how the operation could or should have been
accomplished and internal as well as external restructuring
Links to resources
Center for American Progress 100 Mistakes for the President to Choose From
Six Steps to Mission Planning A valuable
overview of the planning process.
(3) http://www.techcentralstation.com/092205B.html The planning Illusion by Arnold Kling
on the value of decentralized improvisation and adaptation when faced with real time problems to be overcome with less emphasis on bureaucratic planning.
The Aftermath: Disaster Recovery and Planning for the Future – Gartner research and analysis about the global information technology industry
New Incident Response Best Practices by Guidance Software
Developing an Operational
Military Operations Battlefield
Visualization Concept, Training and Doctrine Command,
Preparing for Disaster (A4600)(FEMA 475) (PDF File)
http://www.nedcc.org/plam3/tleaf33.htm Disaster Planning,
Systems Development Life Cycle, Guidance Document, Information Resources Management , The Department of Justice January 2003
Went Wrong in
copyright © J. Morgan Thomas Tel Aviv 2005-2006 all rights reserved