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Crisis Response Paradigm (CRP)
A Comprehensive Checklist For Disaster Preparation and Response2004
page reconstruction & check September 2018
About: A paradigm for development of a basic emergency, terrorism, accident, natural disaster or catastrophe contingency response system towards planning capability, preparedness, security enhancement, effect reduction, and mission completion.
Includes: Listing of principles, strategies, and stages in the preparation and response paradigm. Highlights major segments of the system, some of which are often minimized or overlooked, and identifies major issues without fully outlining each segment.
INTRODUCTION: Each part is equally important in a security system or catastrophic event preparation and response sequence. Neglect of one or more major factors is one of the major problems in effective system development. If a system is perfect in its material and operation, but the human or environmental factors are ignored, the system is fundamentally flawed. Environmental or human factors may in the end be found to be more disastrous to the survival of the system than any mechanical or material provision or capability.
Basic Principles in Preparation and Response to Crisis.
Primary: Never assume that any part of the safety structure can be ignored or left incomplete. Being caught unprepared will be far costlier than the cost of any preparation or response.
prepare for any and all contingencies.
assure communication efficiency and availability at all times and be capable of communication with all levels at all times for updating and situation assessment.
3 separation of authority:
always separate tasks and delegate authority to ensure full preparation of all stages.
4 authority defined:
always have responsibilities and lines of authority and communication well defined and agreed upon.
5 never favor or as repayment:
always match positions for skill and knowledge, never as privilege, flavor or repayment.
6 involve many:
involve other institutions, groups, governments. Never carry all of the burden alone.
7 smooth out problems:
iron out problems in communication between departments or agency conflicts before having to depend on this communication when decisions and action must be taken.
8 expertise availability:
know who can be called upon and how to access in order to provide expertise in any area to be affected.
9 constant updating:
constantly update all individuals with new technologies, procedures, threats and changes in organizational structure, rules and expectations.
10 maximum flexibility:
do not let predetermined decisions outweigh the situation on the ground. Always be open to new possibilities based on changed circumstances or a better way of approaching the problem.
11 independent analysis:
constantly monitor and assess ongoing operations and provide for independent analysis of all stages of the system before, during and after preparation and response.
12 distributed for immediacy:
always have more than enough material and transport immediately ready and always provide for distributed storage of all materials, transport for immediate access.
13 backups and alternatives:
provide for backups and alternative plans for all operational segments.
14 safeguard and protect:
always safeguard civil liberties, human decency, basic rights and adhere to international conventions.
Segments of a Comprehensive Preparation and Response System.
Note: Sub items below are not all inclusive but suggestive of type of operations and special areas of concern under each title.
Identification is the critical first stage in the development of any system. It is the assessment and understanding phase which allows the successful implementation of the prevention, preparation and response phases.
1 event analysis.
separation of all types of events - each has its own time line, effects, and countermeasures.
specification of different types of sub events or processes.
determination of significant features of each sub event.
cross referencing of similar features which can be used across events.
2 modeling of event.
modeling of stages of events and sub processes.
assessment of timing and sequence.
assessment of interaction of elements.
identification of all accompanying occurrences.
highlighting of vulnerabilities of system and ways to strengthen.
3 identification of population, social structure, material, environment affected, how affected, and zones of danger/damage.
4 identification of historical recurrence, responses to the event or attending events, and effects and reasons for successes and failures.
5 scenario development, computerized, field exercise and simulation of all possible events and response modes including accompanying occurrences, side effects, feedback mechanisms.
identification of direct and indirect countermeasures, materials and application techniques, and effects of each.
assessment of funding needed to fulfill each stage of system development identification of different resources from which to obtain help including private, nonprofit, local, state and federal levels and how to obtain.
8 laws and regulations.
determination of legal structure needed at all governmental levels for procurement, expropriations, rights of way, funding, etc. to support all possible operations.
it is often too late to develop or pass legislation, gain permits, etc. which will delegate the requisite authority and scope of duties under the pressure of the event.
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM.
Usually seen as part of prevention but often sidelined and not developed to its fullest potential. The warning system it not only used in warning of immanent events but also operates during the response and subsequent stages to warn of possible side effects, unexpected or unplanned for reactions, and buildup/lack of processes or materials which need special attention. This is actually the nerve center of each stage of the system, although the warning system is constituted differently for each stage.
This part of the security system contains at a minimum, the following items:.
1 identification of those occurrences or early warning signs which precede an event.
2 development and updating of effective communication system.
3 constant upgrading of system with new technologies.
4 components of warning system and timing of surveillance including:
detection equipment for radiation and bio/chemical agents where possibly involved.
5 development of a constant surveillance system.
6 efficient warning mechanisms.
7 system of periodic checks as to validity and impermeability of system.
8 test of effectiveness of communications and preparedness of response to alerts.
9 development of warning signals for "after shocks", sub events or processes within each stage.
10 backup and alternatives if warning system breaks down or unforeseen problems encountered
11 analysis of warning signs and decision structure.
12 types of intervention and scheduling for repair or replacement.
development of standby status and procedures while repair or replacement activated.
13 chain of alert status and procedures.
scheduling of personnel.
analysis of early warning signs.
procedures at each stage.
14 use of simulations and games to occasionally test the response of the system to a crisis and to test the lines of communication.
15 development of legislation, permits, land, air, water use concerning installation, support and use.
16 development of increased prediction of events or inner phase occurrences.
17 constant analysis of operation and success and failure of system after each event or sub event.
Prevention operates at all stages.
prevention of event itself or mitigation of force and action to decrease or eliminate the event, portions of event, or side effects.
assessment of possibilities and capabilities for prevention.
alternative means of prevention, removal or transference, elimination, channeling, diversion, break up, strengthening, counter force, localization, etc.
timely action to institute preventive action.
prevention of all possible deleterious effects of event or sub events.
development of scenarios and simulations to assess the effectiveness of preventive action.
Prevention of the event itself or any of its side effects does not lessen the need for preparation for response.
All the structures needed must be developed here. There will be little time in the response and rehabilitation stages to develop these. Anything not developed will cost time in indecision and confusion which may not be correctable within the given time frame.
1 command, control and management.
2 strategy and overall planning.
3 material and support.
6 knowledge base.
7 monitoring assessment.
9 statutes, licenses, rules, permissions.
1 command, control and management
In the event of emergency, everyone must know what to do, who to report to, and the general command structure. However, flexibility must be built into the whole system. Any rigidity in the system at any point may lead to failure even in the accomplishment of the simplest tasks.
Most important is the need to lessen social, cultural and historical pressures operating within the organization which might create conflict or ineffectiveness of operations in preparation or response. Individuals having conflicting roles to play or an inability to work successfully with each other or within the overall confines of the system may be the determining cause of an accident or breakdown.
development of chain of command.
centralization of authority, planning, communication, analysis.
changes in chains of command in all possible scenarios.
development of a center for administration and communication and analysis.
ability to effectively and efficiently centralize and control preparation, response, containment and reconstruction.
be sure that inter group or inter agency cooperation is assured at all levels and at all times.
have clear lines of responsibility and authority in place and agreed on by all involved at every level.
clarification between preparation and response structures.
functions and specific roles.
division of responsibility.
types and modes of supervision for each stage of the system including backup systems.
prevention of duplication of effort.
rules of behavior.
training, refresher courses, incentives.
development of forms.
development of efficient reporting procedures.
rules for replacement.
extra system support.
initiation of fund raising and the accumulation of sources and funds necessary to carry out the preparation and response.
development of extra system support which can be called upon in an emergency.
scheduling of administrative phases.
timetable of procurement of materials and arranging of personnel for each type of phase/event.
enforcement, legal and appeal structure.
initiation of the legal structure needed and the passing of laws, institution of rules needed to provide legal structure for each element of the preparation and response structure.
legislation of laws, obtaining of permits, rights of way, etc. covering area involved, materials involved in the prevention and response, land regulation, provision of types of facilities and response.
development of rules and behavior at all levels.
testing through scenarios and simulation and field tests of management techniques, centralization and command capability.
independent expert overview.
rules for incorporating outside help, enlistment of personnel.
backup checks on effectiveness of overview system.
external checks and assessment unencumbered with chain of command.
2 strategy and overall planning.
assess what is possible given the available resources and what is needed.
detail all that has been discovered during the identification stage.
develop overall plan for each stage.
determine all possible scenarios needed and requirements for each availability of needed components to respond immediately.
have all materials and supplies stockpiled in strategic places.
updating, installation, training and use of newer methods, materials.
periodic measures to be taken to reinvigorate, replace, check different parts of system and system as a whole.
know the possible risks involved.
keep abreast of the new developments in reduction of risk, capability assessment, preparedness, response, aftermath reduction of causalities or system breakdown, reconstruction.
identify and locate all risk areas and provide for containment.
establish multiple means of keeping all members and groups involved in each stage of the process informed, up-to-date.
detailed analysis of risk in each area and possible responses.
gain countermeasure support from all levels of government including local councils.
assessment of all of the potential risks of a particular operation or occurrence in the system and the updating of all individuals connected with the event.
determination of methods and materials needed to protect health, lives, property, environment.
backup system for each critical function and critical materials.
triggers for initiation.
timing and necessity of initiation of backup systems.
in very high vulnerability or very critical functions, design and provide a double backup.
fix number and type of backup systems for different disruption scenarios.
provision of production, surveillance and maintenance of backup.
updating of surveillance and maintenance scheduling.
provide distributed storage and transport for backup system and replacement of all materials.
constant updating of all materials.
planned obsolescence of materials.
existence of newer better versions.
difficulty of getting parts and continued maintenance of replacement and normal maintenance parts.
alternatives are different from backups.
Backups are similar in design and function with the base system while the primary alternatives are different ways of approaching a problem. Alternatives are usually part of the system which have possible dual functions. The design of any response should include a number of different ways to produce a similar effect - provision of multiple correction or of alternative modes to fix a problem. The user or coordinator of any system should be familiar enough with the fundamental parts to effectively utilize alternatives. Special attention must be given to this both in terms of possible material loss and the need for alternatives to accomplish the same task, or in terms of an alternative and totally novel way of operating.
3 material and support.
determination of and scheduling of supplies with backup.
develop list of suppliers and reliability.
development of supply lines and transport with backup.
determination of all materials needed.
identify possible causes of breakdown, wear, stress, disruption, weak links, aging, accidental change in structural elements or delivery.
initiate provision for and scheduling for testing, surveillance, maintenance, and replacement stockpile at strategic points.
development of personnel supervision, and procedures for supply, materials, maintenance, scheduling, acquisition and obsolescence, storage and use.
awareness and general knowledge of what to do and how.
development of specific skills needed.
scheduled updating of procedures.
development of educational series covering each part which must be completed depending on each individuals position in the system.
upgrade and ensure readiness through refresher courses and seminars to include new technologies, new methods of dealing with system entities, new ways of prevention.
television, radio, computer series to help educate and prepare general public with regard to events.
development of general public educational series to be used in lower and middle schools to provide an atmosphere of event prevention, awareness and preparedness.
6 knowledge base.
develop easily accessed and comprehensive base of information on all levels of operation and for all materials.
assessable to all personnel depending on function, role, status.
7 analysis, assessment and monitoring.
have all expertise readily available and updated.
distribute lists to all relevant personnel and their next in line.
9 protection of civil rights and dignity of population.
develop set of rules to be followed n every situation.
establish an atmosphere of legality, protection and dignity to assure compliance once response mode is under way.
provide the necessary materials, facilities, personnel and mobility needed to fulfill.
All functions should be simultaneously operational since time is usually a critical factor.
No operation should be mounted without supply and support functions in place and operational.
1 Initial procedures.
evaluation of event.
evaluation of preparedness.
knowledge and data scan from all available sources.
prioritizing of areas and types of response.
flexibility of response based on need and materials, personnel.
2 command established - both centralized and distributed.
develop plan of response or attack.
4 provision of supplies and manpower.
check and activation of available supplies, material, personnel.
arrange to fill all gaps in implementation, support, backup forces.
contact resource and service providers.
activation of standing resources and manpower.
5 maintenance of mobility.
maximization of mobility for all routes and types of transport.
containment and corrective action.
activation of predetermined modes of operation.
reduction of effect.
constant evaluations of effectiveness.
provision of needed materials and emergency supplies and equipment.
safeguarding population, material, structures and environment.
directive action, avert, channel , destroy or mitigate continued actions of destructive forces.
prevention of within response occurrences which will increase the damage or necessity of added response.
containment of continuing damage.
containment of side effects - environmental, civilian reaction, retribution, power void, opportunism, isolation, structural weakening, medical delays.
7 constant in-response analysis and updating.
where needed, assessment and activation of alternatives or backups.
initiation of system of monitoring for warning signs of immanent breakdown.
review knowledge and delivery capability and where backups are positioned.
constant assessment of response based on need and changing circumstances.
well defined and immediate assessment of trends.
8 search and rescue.
assessment of type of search needed.
area designations for search and rescue teams.
provision of support for search crews.
provision of basic food, clothing, tools.
constant updating of dangers in field and communication to and between all ground level personnel.
methods of guaranteed coverage and indication of areas covered and means to prevent duplication.
constant assessment of supplies needed and logistics.
methods of activating survivors and use of local population and survivors as location and knowledge base.
search and destroy or minimization of effect.
procedures for medical care, isolation and quarantine where necessary.
9 assessment and analysis.
10 backups, alternatives or contingency plans.
assess all backup and contingency plans and availability.
activate early warning as to indicators of possible problems in implementation of plan.
constant assessment and analysis.
independent assessment and analysis at all times.
This is often the most vulnerable part of the system often overlooked or muddled through. Should be planned equally with other segment of the system of response.
Interim stabilization is made up of stabilization during response and aftermath, emergency support of population, mop-up, and interim authority.
decrease panic, fear, disorientation.
designation of safe areas and sufficient transport.
provide up-to-date news broadcasts and other communications in a format capable of being received and understood by affected population.
social and psychological support services.
constant communication at all levels to dispel inaccurate information.
control and preventive action to contain actions detrimental to community.
prevention of further damage, deterioration.
establish major networks of supply including water, food, medical, fuel.
protection of natural resources - environment, protected areas, forests, water ways, wildlife protection, etc.
protection and disposal of sensitive and hazardous materials.
policing to prevent vandalism, retribution, looting, disorder, mob violence and to generally protect ground personnel and population.
identification and declaration of restricted zones and activities backed up by the necessary enforcement.
plans and decisions for wounded and the handling of causalities.
basic physical support for survivors.
provision of basic food, clothing, tools, shelter.
determination of distribution of needed support.
mobilization of transfer support.
provision and allocation of needed supplies to ward off disease, depravation, effects of environmental elements.
setting up of field hospitals, outpatient clinics and transport to established hospitals and care facilities.
assessment and initiation of initial steps needed to replace primary support to population, wildlife, environment.
provision of basic needs of the infrastructure damaged.
initiation of initial corrective actions to provide ruptured or destroyed services such as power, water, sewage.
determine and provide protection against dangers such as chemicals, gases, hot zones, munitions, etc.
maintenance of solutions instituted during response phase.
prevention of accidents and further loss due to structural instability.
institution of clearing, storing, waste removal or detoxification, transport and recovery operations.
protection of vulnerable or valuable public property.
Institution of interim authority which will provide support during the hours and days immediately after event. Must be top level and highly charismatic and capable since it paves the way for trust, initial building and stabilization.
development of clarity on the scope of the role to fulfill.
establishment of laws, rules for support of authority.
supervision and clearing the way by providing support for other interim stabilization stages.
security assurances and provisions for backup if necessary.
field judicial system with independent appeal structure and adherence to international conventions.
guarantees that responsibility and actions taken are commensurate with risk and need.
setting up initial security and initiate confidence building measures.
establishment of reconstruction authority.
provision for hand over to reconstruction authority once established.
Rehabilitation deals with the human side of reconstruction. Reconstruction is usually equated with the rebuilding of institutions, renewal of public services and the building of physical structures along with the renewal of economic, educational and general social services capabilities. The recovery process for individuals and families is not only physical, but emotional and spiritual. Physical reconstruction can not by itself provide this. Some institutions of society must also go through rehabilitation since the emergency and response process together with side effects may have severely damaged the basis of many institutions.
This process must begin immediately with the cessation of the response phase and in many cases must be instituted during the response itself and hence planned during the preparation phase.
first aid, general health care, disease abatement.
repatriation of refugees, location of relatives, placement of dispossessed individuals and families.
finding lost pets.
burial and bereavement.
religious services and activities.
recreation for different age groups.
institution of care giving including a wide range of social services.
programming of radio and TV toward identification, and solace.
inform and help apply for insurance claims, governmental grants, aid, loans for rebuilding, etc.
development of a reconstruction authority.
establish command and control structure.
development of plan for reconstitution of social structure and economic reconstruction.
establishment of legal, policing and other protection structure needed during stage.
assessment of physical needs of the population once the emergency status has ended.
repair of and further development of water, gas and other immediate needs capabilities.
initiation of major financial, employment, industrial, education, social services, judicial and other institutions.
building of physical structures needed for housing, generation of income, employment, social services.
assessment of long term needs and resources and capabilities available.
assessment of best methods and types of reconstruction.
development of timeline and prerequisites for each new stage of reconstruction.
education and skill training toward filling jobs necessary for the reconstruction process.
setting stage for self help and intra/inter group development and cooperation.
setting up the social mechanisms and economic base for inclusion of those dispersed by the event.
development of base for repayment of loans and grants for reconstruction and emergency services.
Multi Stage Functions
COMMUNICATION and ANALYSIS BOX
Certain functions are similar in the preparation and response stages except for time line. These are command, analysis, communication and supply. Secondly, in a well defined and functioning system, the preparation stage is the simulation for the response stage.
The communications and analysis segments will be included here.
Communication should be centralized and the primary unit operating at all stages, with agreed upon delegation of command within the separate sub units.
Make sure that communication lines are established and physical communication capabilities are operational at all times. Establish alternative communication routes to minimize any breakdown or delay and provide open lines to all operational levels including a central open line for the public to call in information related to emergency, alert, information.
communication should provide:
procedures to avoid jumbled or incomplete information, biased or too narrow in scope.
sufficient channeling to avoid overload, identification of correct target for communiation, and speed of delivery.
separate free communication channels for fast and timely delivery of critical information.
correct production, reproduction, backup and overlap to avoid misunderstanding.
increased coordination and a communication loop to include all involved regardless of level.
communicate in order to:
direct the different stages of system response reduce confusion and time needed to respond.
clarification of orders, laws and rules affecting each stage.
increase provision of help.
warning of dangers pre and post event and precautions to be taken.
prevention of side events and collateral damage.
increase participation of population affected.
develop support and resources.
prevent and or ameliorate events and sub events.
develop for operational functions to direct, request orders, clarify, receive information.
support performance of all duties, actions to, from and within all levels.
keep all relevant personnel and bodies updated on any changes in any part of the preparedness system.
within group communication involved in each stage.
between groups, interagency communication.
communication from operational personnel in field.
communication with and to affected population.
communication capabilities to expert advice if needed.
alert the public and provide public awareness of possible threats and countermeasures to be taken.
inform, reduce panic, misinformation in general population.
1 goals of analysis.
(1) Analysis is a process of problem solving and event response analysis which takes into account historical incidents and the effectiveness of solutions and causes of failure can significantly reduce the effects of an event.
(2) Analysis provides the data from the field in understandable form to aid in the successful direction of response.
Never underestimate the effects of an event.
development of cross indexed database for historical date, case studies, research, recording and analysis.
constant monitoring as to effects of action taken and possible side effects.
contingency plans for monitoring in case of emergency.
constant analysis of field data to assess possible problems.
analysis of trends in all data.
3 segments of system in which analysis operates.
constant analysis and updating of all events at all stages and ongoing actions, aftershocks analysis and updating of backup and alternative systems for all response operations.
4 reporting and record keeping.
centralization of assessment.
development of standardized forms, checks.
use of checklists developed for different levels, different events, operations.
standardized reporting of accidents or events.
record keeping, ease of recording changes, mishaps, weaknesses, previous incidents as a basis for analysis when faced with a problem.
timing and authority for follow-up for all events as well as regular reporting procedures.
5 types of analysis.
constant analysis of effectiveness of command, response, methods, needs, supply lines, communication, safety measures, holes in response, lack of materials or support.
analysis of ongoing procedures successes/failures.
analysis of further damage due to successive recurrence of event or similar events.
analysis of all response elements towards improvement of lines of communication and cooperation.
the warning signs and awareness to impending event.
all phases which were not accomplished, could have been better, were not previously planned or were poorly or insufficiently planned.
identification of holes in the system which may lead to disaster.
analysis of integrity of materials and tools, equipment.
analysis of and special attention on failures to identify possible problems.
provision for immediate analysis of any unexpected change of status.
analysis of effects of preventative action on population, environment and on the capability to respond.
analysis of an inter-related data retrieval system and the adequacy of learning, searching, finding answers, use in investigation, learning from previous events.
external assessment by independent experts.
accountability - acceptance of responsibility and ability to give sufficient reason for actions.
7 change based on assessment, analysis and outside evaluation.
need to create the means and atmosphere for acceptance of change within different stages of the system.
a well defined post crisis set of actions and rules in order to learn from the crisis.
establishment of new rules of behavior, help individuals deal with the consequences of the crisis.
reassessment of the problems within the organization which may have been the sufficient cause or continuation of the crisis.
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