Approaches to Working With Dyslexia
Help for dyslexia and working with those having trouble reading or writing, including links to schools or programs with auditory, visual, and kinesthetic elements
The following includes some of the currently available approaches
to helping individuals who exhibit one or more signs of dyslexia. Each
approach has its own theoretical background and supportive evidence, with
many success stories and followers. Many of the institutes behind each
approach provide diagnosis, individual as well as teacher and specialist
instruction, plus materials for self training and assistance. A number
of the programs have facilities or trained specialists worldwide. Descriptions
are selected quotes from online text but are not meant to be a replacement
for the material on the sites. Be sure to read the testimonials on the
sites. We invite you to visit each site before deciding what is best for
you or your child. It is worth an hour of your time.
Different Approaches Index
The Listening Program - Auditory Processing Therapy Program
Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
Davis Dyslexia Correction
Dyslexia Institute Literacy Programme&Walter Bramley Units of Sound
Lindamood® Phoneme Sequencing Program
Irlen Syndrome/Scotopic Sensitivity
Rest of Page Index
Symptoms of Dyslexia
Definitions of Dyslexia
Listings of sources on Dyslexia
Information for Parents
Hints for Teachers
Help For Dyslexia
American Optometry & Optometric Groups Policy
Miscellaneous Good Stuff
Archives and Forums
Other Approaches of Interest
Computer Software for Reading Enhancement Plus
return to approaches index
return to approaches index
Listening Program - Auditory Processing Therapy Program
Developers of the program: Advanced Brain Technologies. Provides seminars
for training facilitators and authorized
providers of the methods throughout U.S. and over 14 countries.
CDs for home use may be purchased online.
"About 40 years ago, Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis, a French Ear, Nose and Throat
specialist, made some astonishing discoveries which led to the development
of the Tomatis Method. This method goes by different names: "auditory training,"
"auditory stimulation," and "listening therapy." Its purpose is to reeducate
the way we listen, to improve learning and language abilities, communication,
creativity, and social behavior."
"The Listening Program® is a Music-Based Auditory Stimulation method that is used to train the auditory skills needed to effectively listen, learn, and communicate.
It consists of an extensive series of high-quality audio CDs that integrate specially produced acoustic music, primarily classical, with innovative sound processing techniques.
The Listening Program benefits people of all ages starting as young as age two. And, is the only Auditory Stimulation method that has a patent pending process of music production and sound engineering.
Advanced Brain Technologies, LLC (ABT) developed The Listening Program building upon key concepts originated by the late Alfred Tomatis, M.D...."
Who Can Benefit?
Anyone can benefit from improved listening function.
The Listening Program is used by people of all ages, starting as young as age two.
Empirical evidence has demonstrated benefits for:
The typically developing child
Individuals experiencing listening, sensory, learning, language, reading, attention, memory, social, communication, and auditory processing difficulties
Those interested in improved communication and speaking skills, musical ability, learning potential, and creativity
It is best described by an article written by a TLP provider Sound Therapy through the
listening Program describes the basis and uses of The Listening Program.
For a description of the principles behind the program.
Processing Therapy Program and materials Another presentation of
The Listening Program and materials.
Training for Children: Method, Application, and Outcomes Discussion,
background and research on the Tomatis method.
return to approaches index
Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners
The method is multisensory "Orton-Gillingham teaching sessions
are action oriented with auditory, visual, and kinesthetic elements reinforcing
each other for optimal learning.
The method is Structured, Sequential, and Cumulative "The Orton-Gillingham
teacher introduces the elements of the language systematically. Students
begin by reading and writing sounds in isolation. Then they blend the sounds
into syllables and words. Students learn the elements of language, e.g.,
consonants, vowels, digraphs, blends, and diphthongs, in an orderly fashion.
They then proceed to advanced structural elements such as syllable types,
roots, and affixes. As students learn new material, they continue to review
old material to the level of automaticity. The teacher addresses vocabulary,
sentence structure, composition, and reading comprehension in a similar
structured, sequential, and cumulative manner..."
There have been many adaptations of Orton-Gillingham. See a further
description of the methods by Bright
Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC and Adaptations
Highlights the Orton-Gillingham Multisensory Method giving the basics of
the method, supportive research, tools and adaptations.
"* Phonemic Awareness - learn to listen to word or syllable and break
it down sound wise and learn which letters or groups of letters correspond
to sounds, and when blended together create words,
* The Six Types of Syllables that compose English words are taught
next. If students know what type of syllable they're looking at, they'll
know what sound the vowel will make. Conversely, when they hear a vowel
sound, they'll know how the syllable must be spelled to make that sound.
* Probabilities and Rules are then taught. The English language provides
several ways to spell the same sounds. For example, the sound SHUN can
be spelled either TION, SION, or CION. The sound of J at the end of a word
can be spelled GE or DGE. Dyslexic students need to be taught these rules
* Roots and Affixes, as well as Morphology are taught next to expand
a student's vocabulary and ability to comprehend (and spell) unfamiliar
words. For instance, once a student has been taught that the Latin root
TRACT means pull, and a student knows the various Latin affixes, the student
can figure out that re-tract means pull again, con-tract means pull together,
sub-tract means pull away (or pull under), while tract-or means a machine
How it is taught
* Simultaneous Multisensory Instruction: research has shown that dyslexic
people who use all of their senses when they learn (visual, auditory, tactile,
and kinesthetic) are better able to store and retrieve the information.
So a beginning dyslexic student might see the letter A, say its name and
sound, and write it in the air -- all at the same time.
* Intense Instruction with Ample Practice: instruction for dyslexic
students must be much more intense, and offer much more practice, than
for regular readers.
* Direct, Explicit Instruction: dyslexic students do not intuit anything
about written language. So, you must teach them, directly and explicitly,
each and every rule that governs our written words. And you must teach
one rule at a time, and practice it until it is stable in both reading
and spelling, before introducing a new rule.
* Systematic and Cumulative: by the time most dyslexic students are
identified, they are usually quite confused about our written language.
So you must go back to the very beginning and create a solid foundation
with no holes. You must teach the logic behind our language by presenting
one rule at a time and practicing it until the student can automatically
and fluently apply that rule both when reading and spelling. You must continue
to weave previously learned rules into current lessons to keep them fresh
and solid. The system must make logical sense to our students, from the
first lesson through the last one.
* Synthetic and Analytic: dyslexic students must be taught both how
to take the individual letters or sounds and put them together to form
a word (synthetic), as well as how to look at a long word and break it
into smaller pieces (analytic). Both synthetic and analytic phonics must
be taught all the time.
* Diagnostic Teaching: the teacher must continuously assess their student's
understanding of, and ability to apply, the rules. The teacher must ensure
the student isn't simply recognizing a pattern and blindly applying it.
And when confusion of a previously-taught rule is discovered, it must be
For Home and Facilitator Training, see Barton
Reading and Spelling System A one-on-one tutoring program for children
and adults who struggle with reading, spelling or written expression due
to dyslexia or a learning disability. A simplified Orton-Gillingham system
designed for homeschool parents, volunteer tutors, resource specialists
or their aides, and professional tutors. All of the training a tutor needs
is provided on videotape, along with fully scripted lesson plans. Takes
a struggling reader to the 9th grade level.
Other institutes which have adapted the Orton-Gillingham methodology:
Besides the institutes below, for Information for Adults,
Disabilities Association of America or homepage LDA
Also see A
listing and description of major Orton-Gillingham adaptations.
Slingerland Institute for Literacy
"Its function is to provide teacher training..." "The Slingerland Approach
is an adaptation for classroom use of the Orton-Gillingham method. Since
1960, thousands of teachers throughout the United States, and in Canada
and Australia, have received Slingerland training. This structured, sequential,
simultaneous, multisensory teaching approach is designed to help dyslexic
students with speaking, reading, writing and spelling. The flexibility
of the approach has made it effective in general education classrooms as
Phonics Besides tutoring, The Austin Scottish Rite Learning Center
of Austin offers training courses: One such course, "The Basic Course of
Basic Language Skills entails 15 days of training. It is based on Alphabetic
Phonics, a therapeutic curriculum for use by teachers, specialists, and
educational therapists working with students identified with special needs
in learning to read and spell." The Austin Scottish Rite Learning Center
of Austin is to become a "recognized national training site by the Academic
Language Therapy Association (ALTA) and the International Multisensory
Structured Language Education Council (IMSLEC)." Academic
Language Therapy Association (ALTA) According to the [ALTA] by-laws
anyone with substantial and comprehensive Orton-Gillingham based training
(meaning a minimum of 150 class-hours and 700 practicum/intern hours based
on the multisensory, structured, sequential remediation research and practices
of Dr. Samuel T. Orton and Anna Gillingham) is eligible for membership
in ALTA. However, the association membership is narrow in that it is restricted
to individuals with highly specialized, extensive training in multisensory,
structured, sequential language-based therapy practices and procedures
rather than broad-based, generic special education training.
Wilson Language Training
"...experience shows that many people, regardless of their age, have not
been able to acquire reading and writing skills because their learning
needs have never been properly assessed. The majority of these people are
subject to a core deficit at the most basic level of language skill: That
of phonological coding. " ". .. brings to the task more than a decade of
experience and a proven method for helping people of all ages to become
fluent, accurate readers." Provides certified training.
The Spaulding Method "Spalding
Education International is accredited by the International Multisensory
Structured Language Education Council (IMSLEC) for its literacy instructional
programs for teachers and Spalding teacher trainers." "The Spalding Method
is effective for all students ( Regular Education and Special Education)."
The Herman Method
Students with a reading disability CAN become proficient readers when taught
with The Herman Method: a complete, multisensory, remedial reading program
that evolved from the Orton-Gillingham philosophy. The Herman Method meets
the diverse needs of intellectually capable students in elementary, junior
and senior high school who are diagnosed as learning disabled, dyslexic,
return to approaches index
Samuel L. Blumenfeld has written eight books on education and has been
in the forefront of the struggle to get intensive, systematic phonics back
into the schools. His popular reading program, Alpha-Phonics, has been
used by thousands of homeschoolers with great success.
Due to holistic reading methodology, our children have become "...sight
readers with a holistic reflex rather than phonetic readers with a phonetic
reflex. A holistic reader looks at each word as a little picture, a configuration,
much like a Chinese ideograph, and tries to think of the word it represents.
A phonetic reader associates letters with sounds and sounds out the syllabic
units which blend into an articulated word..."
"In other words, failure to teach a child to read phonetically, but
requiring the child to memorize hundreds of sight words produces educational
dyslexia. Incidentally, a sight word, by definition, is a word learned
without reference to the sounds the letters stand for. Nowadays, publishers
are selling books for preschoolers with audio tapes so that the child can
learn to read by the sight method without the help of his or her parents.
Thus, the child will develop a reading handicap without the slightest idea
that what he or she is doing is harmful."
"...What we do know is that when you impose an inaccurate, subjective
ideographic teaching technique on a phonetic-alphabetic writing system
which demands accurate decoding, you create symbolic confusion, cognitive
conflict, frustration and a learning breakdown..." See The MWIA
"...Fortunately, homeschoolers are in the best position to guard their
children against the kind of pedagogical poisoning that is turning millions
of normal children into LDs. They can begin teaching their children to
read phonetically as early as the child wishes. Above all, they must avoid
having their preschoolers memorize words holistically without any knowledge
of the letter sounds. If you tell children that letters stand for sounds,
they will begin to understand what our alphabetic system is all about."
Dyslexia: Man-Made Disease
Can Dyslexia Be Artifically Induced in Shcool? pdf)
How To Cure Dyslexia (pdf)
Miscue Analysis (pdf)
The MWIA TEST
" The MWIA is a simple test (see below) which measures the degree to
which a person is a "subjective" reader. It was developed in North Carolina
by former teacher and school administrator, Edward Miller, in the early
1990s. Reading experts including Charles M. Richardson and Samuel Blumenfeld,
and licensed school psychologist Steven Kossor say it can help parents
and teachers identify children schooled in Whole Language.
The MWIA consists of two lists of words, the first of which is drawn
from the 220 most popular "sight words" that children are given in early
basal readers and books such as Dr. Seuss's The Cat In The Hat. These 220
high-frequency words were alleged by researchers in the 1920s to comprise
half of all English words appearing in print.
The second list is drawn from Why Johnny Can't Read by Rudolph Flesch,
and consists of phonetically-regular words at first-grade level. The difference
is that the words in the first list, although including more than two dozen
irregular or multi-syllable words, will be familiar to Whole Language readers
but words in the second list may not. A whole-word reader not only slows
down when reading the second list, but also makes more errors.
A phonetic (objective) reader can read both lists equally well, and
may even read the second list faster because the words are easier. As Steve
Kossor noted in his Education Newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 8), "a child who
'reads' list number one well but struggles with list number two may be
demonstrating how well he has learned to create the illusion of reading
by memorizing a few familiar words, while actually remaining functionally
illiterate." Kossor Education Newsletter no longer available on line.
However, the Miller Word-Identification Assessment (MWIA) which is partially reproduced below, is available through Don Potter Education Page
List Number 1 (LOOK-SAY)
Time: ____ min ___sec Total seconds:_______ Errors: ______
List Number 2 (PHONETIC)
Time: ____ min ___sec Total seconds:_______ Errors: ______
from The Kossor Education Newsletter, Volume 3, Number 8, Page 4
The following materials may be purchased online: Phonics Reading,
Reading Testing and Phonics CD-ROM's, Cursive Handwriting, Arithmetic,
Grammar, Practice Workbooks and Readers, Punctuation, and other material.
return to approaches index
Dyslexia - The Gift
Also Davis Dyslexia Correction
A method for all children geared to different learning styles (see Davis
Learning Strategies below), and for individuals with dyslexia.
A brief overview on the basis of the program for individuals with dyslexia
by webmaster Abigail Marshall - the Gift' to
see original "Because dyslexics think in pictures or imagery, they
tend to use global logic and reasoning strategies, looking at the 'big
picture' to understand the world around them...."
"Dyslexics tend to have difficulty with unreal and symbolic objects,
such as letters and numerals. In their effort to comprehend symbols ...
they can become disoriented. This leads to the familiar symptoms of substitutions,
omissions, reversals or transpositions in reading or writing letters and
words. Disorientation is not limited to visual input; many dyslexics commonly
mishear or garble words or the sequence of words in sentences. Their sense
of time can seem distorted and their motor coordination can appear delayed
or clumsy. "
The method teaches "...the student how to recognize when they are disoriented,
and then how to use their own mind and awareness to turn off their disorientation..."
The next step is to solve the problems which cause the disorientation
by mastering the alphabet, basic symbols, and the words for which the dyslexic
has no picture or meaning through individual imaginative creation of an
object which represents the symbol or word. This is followed by skill development
of sequencing and comprehension. The process followed by a number of other
methods to increase reading speed and comprehension produces "...long term
retention of the spelling and meaning of a word without the need for phonetic
decoding or memorization."
Has online self assessment test. There are 273 Davis Dyslexia Correction®
providers including individual treatment and workshops throughout the world
in 22 countries with services available in 16 languages. Materials available
The Gift of Dyslexia, Instructional Videotapes, and Davis Symbol Mastery
Davis Learning Strategies
An adaptation of the Davis Method for children under age 8 which was found
to be beneficial to all children to enhance and improve their reading and
language arts skills and also found to prevent special education placement
and increase the number of students qualifying for Gifted Education placement.
Available are two Teacher Kits to help teachers begin using Davis Learning
Strategies techniques in grades K-3. One kit is geared toward students
in Kindergarten and First Grade (ages 5-7). The other is geared to students
in Grades 2-3 (ages 7-9). Kits for home use also available.
return to approaches index
Dyslexia Institute Literacy
Programme & Walter Bramley Units of Sound
The Institute provides assessment testing, teaching for people with
dyslexia, training of specialists, and holds short courses for mainstream
The Institute "...uses a phonic approach that helps the student to
understand the logical structure of written language. Beginning with basic
sound-symbol links for reading, writing and spelling, the pupil moves on
to word-building, at first using a very small range of letters, and gradually
increasing the repertoire. Soon he can read sentences and larger pieces
of writing containing the letters covered, and work on reading comprehension.
The student "...will learn to work out how to spell words from the sounds
and from the spelling rules. Computers will usually form an integral part
of the lesson and, gradually, study skills, or aids to effective learning,
will be introduced. A mathematics program is also available.
The approach "...has a strong phonic/sound element and each 'page' focuses
on a particular 'unit of sound', which is combined with a visual whole
word approach. Each sound is seen, heard, spoken and practised within blocks
of words, making it very multisensory. The word blocks lead into sentences
and structured, continuous reading passages." "...pupils have access to
the latest materials which are trialled in-house before being releasedfor wider use. The program has been developed over 25 years. It draws on
the work of Orton and Gillingham in the USA; Kathleen Hickey, who developed
her programme whilst she was our first Director of Studies; and the most
recent research. Maintains 23 institutes and fifty outposts and works in
some 75 schools throughout the U.S., and 25 centers in the U.K. and more
than 125 outposts and in-school units provide specialist teaching for children
The Units of Sound on tape and CD, assessment and literacy kits, and
other materials are available online.
return to approaches index
Based on the principle that it is the way in which the message is delivered
and the preparation of the learner that are in many instances the problem
and not a physical disability, this program works on the basic tasks of
the learning process itself which is stratified "This means that there
is a sequence that is to be observed in teaching. Certain things have to
be taught first, before it becomes possible to teach other things. The
main objective of the Audiblox program is to practice and automatize the
skills that underlie reading, spelling, writing, mathematics and the learning
of subject matter."
"Simply put, Audiblox is a system of cognitive exercises, aimed at the
development of foundational learning skills..." "Audiblox develops and
automatizes the foundational skills of reading, spelling, writing, mathematics
and the skills required in the learning of subject matter:
Perception - visual, auditory and haptic
The ability to discriminate, synthesize and analyze in terms of foreground-background,
form, size, position in space/time and color
Memory - short and long term, visual and auditory
The ability to decode and integrate information
Concept of numbers
Fine and gross motor coordination
It is flexible - suitable for home tutoring or in the classroom, all
age groups, adaptable to the intellectual levels of learners, challenging,
and capable of smooth integration into any curriculum.
The program "sharpens attention and concentration, develops accurate
perception, improves memory, promotes logical thought, improves reading,
spelling and handwriting, and is effective for dyslexia, dysgraphia and
other learning difficulties".
The idea is outlined in the book "The Right to Read". "Some teaching
materials are also required. You can collect and/or make these yourself.
Information on how to do this is given in The Right to Read. You can also
purchase the required equipment, which includes the following: The Audiblox
Learner set contains 72 colored blocks, equally divided into six different
colors - black, white, red, green, blue and yellow. It also contains a
screen, used to shield blocks from the learner, and a set of color cards
with preprinted patterns, which are needed for one of the Audiblox exercises"
plus a reading book, and word cards. A video is also available.
return to approaches index
Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS) Program
"A primary cause of decoding and spelling problems is difficulty in
judging the identity, number, and sequence of sounds within words. This
is called weak phoneme awareness. This weakness in phonological processing
causes both children and adults to add, omit, substitute, and reverse sounds
and letters within words. They cannot accurately get words off the page,
because although they see the letters correctly, they cannot judge whether
what they say matches what they see. This prevents them from detecting
and correcting their errors in reading and spelling, and also in speech.
This can also cause difficulty in learning a second language."
"The LiPS Program successfully develops phoneme awareness and its application
to reading, spelling, and speech both preventively and remedially. Individuals
are helped to discover the mouth actions that produce speech sounds. This
sensory information is used to verify sounds and their order in words,
and enables individuals to become self-correcting in reading, spelling,
'"It is common for individuals to gain several grade levels in decoding
ability in four to six weeks of intensive treatment, four hours daily.
Further gains in speech-language have also occurred through this sensory-cognitive
approach after individuals have hit a plateau under traditional speech
There are Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes Centers in over 15 U.S.
States and the U.K. Materials available to the public include a manual
with detailed presentations of steps, and outlines and sample dialogues
for implementing the LiPS Program. Support products include: LiPS Program
Clinical Kit, Classroom Kit, a Practice CD-ROM , Training Videos, and LAC
Lindamood-Bell Centers also deal with hyperlexia, a problem in which
individuals read accurately but do not comprehend what they read.
|Irlen Syndrome, formerly known as Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome
A variety of problems can result from seeing a distorted page of words,
numbers or musical notes or perceiving [the]... environment in a distorted
fashion. It can affect reading, writing, spelling, math, copying, reading
music, working on a computer, night driving, driving, sports performance,
comfort under fluorescent lights, and other areas of a person's life.
"Individuals with Irlen Syndrome see the printed page differently from
those with normal vision and must constantly adapt to distortions appearing
on the printed page. They may be slow or inefficient readers, exhibit poor
comprehension, suffer from strain, fatigue or headaches. It can affect
their attention-span, energy-level, motivation, handwriting, depth-perception
and, ultimately, self-esteem. Irlen syndrome sufferers may be labeled as
underachievers with behavioural, attitudinal, or motivational problems.
It is a complex and variable condition sometimes found to co-exist with
Irlen Syndrome was first identified by Educational Psychologist, Helen
Irlen, while she was working with adult-learners in California in the early
1980s. She observed that some of her students read with greater ease when
they covered a page of print with a Coloured overlay. The patented treatment-method
uses specially formulated, coloured overlays or coloured lenses worn as
glasses or contact lenses to reduce or eliminate perception-difficulties.
"The program is designed to serve the needs of individuals with learning
difficulties, attention deficit, autism, and other problems which interfere
with adequate functioning in the classroom, workplace, and socially."
What to look for
Signs in Reading: Poor comprehension, Misreads words, Reads
in dim light, Skips words or lines, Reads slowly or hesitantly, Takes breaks,
Loses place, Avoids reading
Complaints while Reading: Strain and fatigue, Tired or sleepy,
Headaches or nausea, Fidgety or restless
Writing Characteristics: Trouble copying, Unequal spacing, Writing
up or downhill, Inconsistent spelling
Other Characteristics: Strain or fatigue from computer use,
Difficulty reading music, Sloppy, careless math errors, Misaligned numbers
in columns, Ineffective use of study time, Lack of motivation, Grades do
not reflect the amount of effort
Depth Perception: Clumsiness, Difficulty catching balls, Difficulty
judging distances, Additional caution necessary while driving .
"Colored lenses provided by optometrists and vision specialists to treat
dyslexia and reading problems are NOT the same as the Irlen Method. Others
do not have the right colors, or diagnostic process for color selection.
Inaccurate colour selection can result in headaches, eye strain, and fragmented
brain processing resulting in more distortions and reading problems."
Symptoms of Dyslexia to
Symptoms of Dyslexia
from Dyslexia.UK.com One of the best listings of symptoms commonly
linked to dyslexia:
To get rid of blue strip on that page, see Change
Font Color and Size
Definitions of Dyslexia to
of Dyslexia Page
Listings of Sources on Dyslexia to
Roads To Learning PDF
- The Public Libraries' Learning Disabilities Initiative, Hosted by the
American Library Association. Associations and list of resource sites
See especially - ADD/ADHD/Dyslexia --- 101 Tips for Teachers/Parents
What's New?, What Are SLD's?, Learning Difficulties, Autism Disorders, Survival Kit, Help & Resources
Common Attention and Learning Difficulties:
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD),
Attention Deficit Hypo-activity Disorder (ADHD),
Central Auditory Processing Disorder,
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD),
Scotopic Sensitivity syndrome (sko-top-ik),
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autistic Disorder (Childhood Autism),
Asperger Disorder (syndrome),
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD),
Pervasive Developmental Disorder,
Rett Disorder (syndrome)
Guide to Overcoming Dyslexia
A Comprehensive Resource Guide for Teachers and Students In-depth study guides at your fingertips written by experienced teachers, professors, and literary scholars for a wide range of fiction and non-fiction title
"A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides for challenging works of literature."
Also includes General Dyslexia Resources, Dyslexia Resources for Students, Dyslexia Resources for Teachers, Overcoming Dyslexia with Games and Exercises, Understanding Dyslexia Resources
Recommended by Tamara Haskell
Attention-Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Dyslexia
International Dyslexia Association
This website uses Browsealoud: a screen reader, a language translator, a text magnifier, a page simplifier, a screen masking tool, an audio recording tool, learn how to use them
Mission Statement: "To create a future for all individuals who struggle with dyslexia and other related reading differences so that they may have richer, more robust lives and access to the tools and resources they need."
Information for Parents to
Dyslexia Help at the University of Michigan
with Dyslexia Tests, Dyslexia Myths, Fun Games for Dyslexics, Software and Assistive Technology, Independent Schools,
click here for information on a list of Support for Dyslexics & Web Resources
Click here for Tools including: Apps for Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities, Software & Assistive Technology, Book Scanning Services, Books to Get Kids Reading, Bookshare, Scholastic, and Other Helpful Online Resources, Dyslexia Quiz, Fun & Games for Dyslexics, Our Favorite Books,
Reading & Spelling Programs, Comparison of Programs, and more...
Ten Things to Help Your Struggling Reader
The Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity (YCDC)
"...the preeminent source of cutting-edge research, informed advocacy and trustworthy resources to help those with dyslexia reach their full potential. The Center's tools and resources are used widely by parents, educators and those with dyslexia to advocate for greater recognition and support for dyslexic children and adults. "
Dyslexia Tool Kit for Tutors and Parents: What to do when phonics isn't enough
Just read the reviews.
If you are in the U.S., scroll down to: Click On Your State to Track Dyslexia Legislation International Dyslexia Association
Check out: IDA fact sheets - "...convenient, professionally reviewed materials designed to improve understanding and support advocacy initiatives."
International Dyslexia Association global links to service providers and to conferences, workshops, and events in your area
Plus List of global partners.
Hints for Teachers to
Some Hints for Teachers
ADD/ADHD/Dyslexia --- 101 Tips for Teachers/Parents
Document developed by the Chesapeake Institute, Washington, D.C, with the Windeyer Group, Washington, D. C, as part of a contract from the Office of Special Education Programs, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, United States Department of Education.
Policy Statement of American Academy of Optometry
& American Optometric Association to
Vision, Learning and Dyslexia source
A Joint Organizational Policy Statement of the American Academy of Optometry
and the American Optometric Association
1. Vision problems can and often do interfere with learning.
2. People at risk for learning-related vision problems should be evaluated
by an optometrist who provides diagnostic and management services in this
3. The goal of optometric intervention is to improve visual function and
alleviate associated signs and symptoms.
4. Prompt remediation of learning-related vision problems enhances the
ability of children and adults to perform to their full potential.
5. People with learning problems (i.e., dyslexia) require help from many
disciplines to meet the learning challenges they face. Optometric involvement
constitutes one aspect of the multidisciplinary management approach required
to prepare the individual for lifelong learning.
Miscellaneous Good Stuff to
Publishing Hints Making Public@tions More Accessible. source
An excellent and detailed explanation of how to make text more readable
Advice to teachers from a dyslexic
Enabling the dyslexic student to de-code information source
For anyone who wants to find out how one person solved the left right
problem and which knob goes to which burner on the stove. source
Using Colors to Meet Special Needs - Improving Attention &
General Strategies for Choosing Color and Other Text Options Some helpful
research related to colors of text and background. Also deals with lighting,
spacing, alignment, etc. Using Colors to Meet Special Needs - Don Johnston
SELF TESTS Short, Long, Headache, Light Sensitivity, Autism,
Color Light Activity from irlen.com
Using Humor to Teach Comprehension AVKO Dyslexia- Spelling
Research Foundation - The Learning Disabilities/Dyslexia Specialists source
Some of the most humorous aphorisms I've read.
AVKO Dyslexia- Spelling Research
Foundation The Learning Disabilities/Dyslexia Specialists
DYSLEXIA ADULTS LINK - Sharing, finding out more about dyslexia and
being dyslexic ... dyslexia-adults.com
Offering help and advice, information, contacts, research and articles
about dyslexia and finding a dyslexia test and assessment for adults who
may be dyslexic.
Other Approaches of Interest to
Reading Made Easy with Blend Phonics for the First Grade (pdf) Lesson Plans and Teacher's Guide
Hazel Logan Loring, project of Logan Institue for Educational Excellence 1980
Extensive bibliography on Phonics includes downloadable phonics programs,
phonics research and background by Don Potter.
Phonics works: Sounding out words is best way to teach reading, study suggests "Research published today in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General has shown that learning to read by sounding out words (a teaching method known as phonics) has a dramatic impact on the accuracy of reading aloud and comprehension." "Researchers tested whether learning to read by sounding out words is more effective than focusing on whole-word meanings. "
Archives and Forums to
Discussion Forum of The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) source
To register for boards for different groups and age categories.
Dyslexia Talk - Davis Dyslexia & Learning Discussion Board source
Computer Software for Reading Enhancement Plus
StepWare, Inc. AceReader - the award winning software that is
revolutionizing reading proficiency source
faster both on and off your computer by practicing to read in both RSVP
Mode (Center Text Mode) and TSP Mode (Eye Trainer Scroll Mode) at configurable
speed settings. Adjust: (1) speed of text presentation, (2) font color,
(3) font size, (4) background color, (5) number of words or lines, (6)
delays and much more. The clipboard allows for reading text loads from
clipboard or text from the internet. *Vision Impaired - Read without eye
movement. Change the text font and background color. *Memorization Tool
- Use AceReader to memorize text. By utilizing the Burst Forward, Back
and Repeat features, you can rapidly re-read text for the purpose of memorizing
it. In this mode you're using AceReader as a computerized flash card system.
Examples: States capitals, Math Multiplication Tables, Names... *Self-Improvement
Programming - Step the speed up and rapidly display messages to yourself
for the purpose of programming your subconscious with positive suggestions.
*Learn Foreign Languages - Use AceReader as a computerized flash card system
to read and re-read text for the purpose of learning a foreign language.
AceReader supports the international ASCII character set (i.e. English,
Spanish, German, French, Italian...). *ESL - Many foreign students use
AceReader to help them learn English as a Second Language by helping with
their reading skills. *Dyslexia - Special features have been added to help
readers with dyslexia such as slower speeds and the ability to burst words
one sentence at a time. *Eye Tracking - The "Eye Trainer Scroll Mode" will
pace the readers eyes to move left to right and top-down. This mode forces
the readers eyes to move as they would in normal offline reading. eTEXT
& eBOOK LINKS Load AceReader with electronic books. By utilizing the
"Load File" and "Load Clipboard" features of AceReader, you can easily
load eText and eBooks from the following sources:
Proportional Reading Improve Reading Immediately source
Simultaneous Solution for 20 Problems
1. End Skipped Words 2. Eliminate Reversals with Other Words 3. End Whole-Part
Problems 4. Stop Regressions 5. End Non-Stop Reading 6. Improve Fluency
with Visual Listening 7. Prevent Vocalization and Subvocalization 8. Raise
Speed and Comprehension 9. Increase Concentration 10. Increase Visualization
11. Improve Creativity and Reduce Stress 12. Enable Notetaking Without
Handwriting 13. Get Pronunciation and Definitions 14. Enhance Perception
15. Reduce Contrast and Brightness 16. Create 5 Level Outlines Without
Any Retyping 17. Review with Building Blocks 18. Review Through Anticipation
19. Review Through Interactive Tutorial 20. Experience Good Reading; Practice
"Proportional Reading is a software tool which instantly enables poor readers, average readers and new readers (elementary, adult and ESL) to read like good readers. Proportional Reading optically and mechanically functionally compensates for both the processing difficulties and attitudinal and experiential blockages of poor readers and instantly gets them to the same place as good readers. It is both an ongoing tool for reading any text and a set of transferrable skills which quickly help many readers become good independent readers."
textHELP! source For
any Windows based application.
Award winning Read & Write "floats" on top of any open application
waiting to provide assistance when called upon. Read&Write 6, INTRODUCTION
New Read & Write (v6) is the latest version of our award winning software.
It is an application toolbar that works with ANY Windows based application.
It can be used with word processors, spreadsheets, databases, email and
the Internet. It is a simple to use toolbar that "floats" on top of any
open application. Assistance can then easily be called upon as you work.
FEATURES include: Speech - Read & Write (v6) color highlights
and reads the words, sentences or paragraphs in your document providing
audio-visual reinforcement and helping to develop recognition of new words
and vocabulary. Speech is also an integral part of the other support features,
for example, you can have the Word Prediction suggestions read to you.
Spell Checking - Read & Write (v6) incorporates a fast advanced
spellchecker specifically designed to solve the most complex of phonetic
errors. The spellchecker can be customized to suit individual needs and
provides audible definitions of alternative suggestions to help you choose
the correct one. Homophones Support - Read & Write (v6) will
identify and provide audible definitions for like sounding words to improve
the accuracy of your work. Word Prediction - This will aid in sentence
construction by suggesting and predicting words. Word predictor will learn
as correct text is typed, dramatically aiding the development of literacy
and increasing accuracy. With context and phonetic based word prediction.
Dictionary - Dictionary - 180,000-word talking dictionary will benefit
you by helping to increase your literacy and creative writing skills. Simple
Calculator - On screen calculator provides all the main functions of
a simple calculator with audible feedback and audit trail. Word Wizard
- Word wizard assists in developing creative sentences by offering solutions
for vocabulary. When you are searching for the word you want to use Word
Wizard takes you though a simple step by step process till you find the
word you are looking for.. Teachers' Toolkit - enables educators
to specify which Read & Write GOLD features a particular student has
access to and see student spelling logs and activity logs.
GOLD adds following: Scanning - Scan any text document into Word
or any other major word processor enabling on screen editing and text reading.
Scanned material will be incorporated into a familiar mainstream environment,
allowing the document to be made easily available to other Users. This
is key to inclusive education and integration. There is also the option
to scan any text document into Internet Explorer for "near perfect" image
generation or a text only image to which a User defined style sheet can
be applied. Speech Maker - converts selected text into speech, which
can be saved as an audio file (.wav, MP3, .wma) capable of being played
on any suitable device. Fact Folder - This desk research tool allows
you to capture text from any application, classify it, attach pictures
and bibliography information and record its source. This information can
be converted to a slide show and document to help studying and revision.
Fact Finder - this web search tool searches the web to find relevant
information associated with your research topic. Search engines in 6 different
categories are provided for you to choose from. Speech Input (only available
with USA version) - speak into your computer and have what you say converted
to text on the screen. Help is provided to assist you to train the software
to recognize your voice. Pronunciation Tutor - The Pronunciation
Tutor will break words into syllables allowing easy recognition and pronunciation.
Includes a moving mouth, to aid the development of more accurate speech.
Also available: Type&Talk, ScreenReader
Helpful Links to
International Dyslexia Association "(IDA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia, their families and the communities that support them. IDA is the oldest learning disabilities organization in the nation..."
Click Your State to Track Dyslexia Legislation
Check out: IDA fact sheets - "...convenient, professionally reviewed materials designed to improve understanding and support advocacy initiatives."
ISA List of global partners and links to: service providers and to conferences, workshops, and events in your area.
Dyspraxia by K12Academics
Provides the following in the U.S. for each of the disabilities: Characteristics | Variations of Disorder | Facts | Treatment |
| Organizations | Support Services | Books | Magazines |
| Mailing Lists
Dyslexia - Talk of two theories, Franck Ramus, Nature, vol.
412, 26 July 2001. source
For other research and reports by Franck Ramus
Theories of developmental dyslexia: source
pdf Also see Theories of developmental dyslexia:Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults
"Notwithstanding the possibility of other independent (but rare)
causes of reading impairment, the cause of dyslexia is a phonological deficit.
This deficit can arise independently of any sensory or motor impairment.
Furthermore, a significant proportion of dyslexics suffer from additional
auditory, visual or motor disorders. Auditory deficits, at least, may aggravate
the phonological deficit, hence the reading impairment. The nature of the
auditory deficits observed is not particularly consistent with the hypothesis
of a rapid processing deficit related to a magnocellular dysfunction. Neither
is the nature of motor/timing impairments particularly consistent with
the hypothesis of an automaticity deficit or a cerebellar dysfunction.
The nature of the phonological deficit and its relationship to auditory
processing difficulties remains to be established. Why sensory and motor
disorders are frequently associated with phonological deficits (and other
developmental disorders) is still to be understood.
Genetics of Developmental Dyslexia Dr Simon Fisher, et al.
The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics (WTCHG), as part of the University of Oxford's Clinical School,
currently has over 250 scientific researchers and holds grants with an overall value of approximately £56 million and
has an annual turnover of around £8 million.
The Neurogenetics group - The study of the genetic basis... is the first step towards understanding the mechanism of disease and normal brain function as well as providing better strategies for therapy. The group works in two main areas:
1. The genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders including complex genetic diseases such as autism, specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia.
2. The positional cloning and functional characterization of monogenic neurological diseases including, chorea acanthocytosis (CHAC), speech and language disorder (SPCH1), Movement disorders and ataxias, Menkes and Wilson's disease.
Dyslexia and the Mental Lexicon Mental
Lexicon Discusses word recognition and several different possible models
of the way in which the brain is accessed to provide us with recognition
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